B. C

878 Carthage founded.

776 Olympic Era began.

753 Foundation of Rome.

588 Jerusalem taken by Nebuchadnezzar.

536 Restoration of the Jews under Cyrus.

509 Expulsion of the Tarquins from Rome.

480 Heroism of the Spartans at Thermopylae.

55 Caesar conquered Britain.

4 Birth of Jesus Christ.

A. D

29 The Crucifixion.

70 Jerusalem was destroyed by Titus.

313 Constantine converted to Christianity.

410 The Romans abandoned Britain.

827 Egbert, first king of all England.

1066 Battle of Hastings, Norman Conquest.

1096 The Crusades began.

1172 Ireland was conquered by Henry II.

1215 King John granted Magna Charta, June 15.

1265 First Representative Parliament in England.

1415 Battle of Agincourt, Oct.


1431 Joan of Arc was burnt, May 30.

1453 Constantinople taken by the Turks.

1455 The Wars of the Roses began.

1462 The Bible was first printed at Mentz.

1471 Caxton set up his printing press.

1486 The feuds of York and Lancaster ended.

1492 Columbus discovered America, Oct.


1517 The Reformation began in Germany.' 1519 Cortez began the conquest of Mexico.

1535 The first English Bible printed.

1539 Monasteries were closed in England.

1558 Accession of Queen Elizabeth, Nov.


1565 Revolt of the Netherlands began.

1572 The St.

Bartholomew Massacre, Aug.


1588 The Spanish Armada defeated.

1600 East India Company first chartered.

1603 Union of England and Scotland, March 24.

1605 The Gunpowder Plot in England.

1607 Jamestown, Va., was settled.

1609 Hudson River first explored.

1616 Shakespeare died, April 23.

1618 Thirty Years' War in Germany began.

1620 Pilgrims by the Mayflower landed.

1623 Manhattan Island settled.

1634 Maryland settled by Roman Catholics.

1636 Rhode Island settled by Roger Williams.

1640 Cromwell's Long Parliament assembled.

1649 Charles I. was beheaded, Jan. 30.

1653 Oliver Cromwell became Lord Protector.

1660 Restoration of the Stuarts.

1664 New York conquered from the Dutch.

1664 The great plague of London.

1666 The great fire of London began Sept. 2.

1679 Habeas Corpus Act passed in England.

1682 Pennsylvania settled by William Penn.

1685 Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, Oct. 22.

1688 James II. abdicated, Dec. 11.

1690 Battle of the Boyne, July 1.

1690 First newspaper in America; at Boston.

1704 Gibraltar was taken by the English.

1713 Peace of Utrecht, April 11.

1714 Accession of House of Hanover, Aug. 1.

1715 First Jacobite Rebellion in Great Britain. 1720 South Sea Bubble.

1745 Battle of Fontenoy, April 30.

1745 Second Jacobite Rebellion in Great Britain.

1756 Black Hole Suffocation in Calcutta.

1757 Clivewon Battle of Plassey in India. 1759 Canada was taken from the French. 1765 Stamp Act enacted.

1773 Steam engine perfected by Watt.

1773 Tea destroyed in Boston Harbor, Dec. 16.

1775 Battle of Lexington, April 19.

1775 Battle of Bunker Hill, June 17.

1776 Declaration of Independence, July 4.

1777 Burgoyne's surrender, Oct. 17. 1779 Capt. Cook was killed, Feb. 14.

1781 Cornwallis' surrender at Yorktown, Oct. 19.

1788 First settlement in Australia, Jan. 26.

1789 The French Revolution began July 14. 1789 Washington first inaugurated President. 1793 Cotton-gin invented by Whitney.

1793 Louis XVI. of France executed, Jan. 21. 1796 Vaccination discovered by Jenner.

1798 The Irish Rebellion.

1799 Battle of Seringapatam ; death of Tippoo. 1799 Bonaparte declared First Consul, Nov. 10. 1801 Union of Great Britain and Ireland, Jan. I.

1803 Louisiana purchased from the French.

1804 Bonaparte became Emperor of France.

1805 Battle of Trafalgar; death of Nelson. 1807 Fulton's first steamboat voyage. 1812 Second war with Great Britain.

1812 The French expedition to Moscow.

1813 Perry's victory on Lake Erie, Sept. 10.

1814 The printing machine invented.

1814 Scott's "Waverley"published.

1815 Battle of New Orleans, Jan. 8. 1815 Battle of Waterloo, June 18.

1819 First steamship crossed the Atlantic.

1820 Missouri Compromise adopted,

1823 Monroe Doctrine declared, Dec. 2.

1828 First passenger railroad in the United States.

1830 Revolution in France, Orleanist succession.

1832 South Carolina Nullification Ordinance.

1835 Morse invented the telegraph.

1835 Seminole War in Florida began.

1837 Accession of Queen Victoria, June 20.

1845 Texas annexed.

1846 Sewing machine completed by Elias Howe. 1846 The Irish Potato Famine.

1846 British Corn laws repealed, June 26.

1846 War with Mexico began.

1848 French Revolution, Republic succeeded..

1848 Gold discovered in California.

1851 Gold discovered in Australia.

1851 First International Exhibition, London.

1852 Louis Napoleon became Emperor, Dec. 2.

1853 Crimean War began.

1857 The Great Mutiny in India.

1857 The Dred Scott decision.

1859 John Brown's raid into Virginia.

1860 South Carolina seceded, Dec. 20.

1861 Emancipation of the Russian serfs.

1863 Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation, Jan. 1

1863 Battle of Gettysburg, July 1-3.

1865 Lee surrendered at Appomattox, April 9.

1865 President Lincoln assassinated, April 14.

1866 Battle of Sadowa. Prussia beat Austria.

1867 Emperor Maximilian of Mexico executed. 1867 The Dominion of Canada established. 1870 Franco-German War began, July 19. 1870 Capitulation of French at Sedan, Sept 1.

1870 Rome became the capital of Italy.

1871 The German Empire re-established. 1871 1 he Irish Church was disestablished.

1871 The great fire in Chicago, Oct. 8-11.

1872 The great fire in Boston, Nov. 9.

1876 Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia.

1881 President Garfield shot.

1882 British occupation of Egypt. 1889 Brazil became a Republic.

1893 World's Columbian Exposition at Chicago.

1894 Chinese-Japanese War began.

1895 Cuban Revolution began, Feb. 20.

1895 McKinley inaugurated President of the United States.

1897 The Turkish-Greek War.

1898 The Spanish-American War.

1898 The Filipino War.

1899 Universal Peace Conference.

1899 The South African War.

1900 Invasion of China by allied European and American forces.

1901 Australia became a Federal Union, January 1. 1901 Death of Queen Victoria. 1901 Edward VII. becomes King of England. 1901 Marriage of Queen Wilhelmina. 1901 McKinley inaugurated President of the United States second time. Assassinated

Sept. 14, 1901. 1904-5 Russo-Japanese War.



Showing the possessions of the sir great powers - Great Britain, Spain, France, Germany, Russia and the United States. Of the Chinese Empire, Africa and Australia, little was known at the beginning of the old century.



Showing the political boundaries of the six great powers at the beginning of the new century. Africa, Australia add portions of China have been absorbed by one or more of the great powers. Spain has withdrawn from the Western Hemisphere, and South America is held by independent governments.