The accompanying drawing of storm and sanitary drains should be studied in detail by the reader. The location of each trap and fitting should be studied carefully and the reason that it is put in that particular place should be thoroughly understood. Below, each plan has been taken and gone over in detail, bringing out the reasons for fittings and traps, also the arrangement of the piping.

Fig. 46. Fig. 46.

The first thing to note in Fig. 46 is the number and kinds of fixtures to be drained. There is in the basement a set of three-part wash trays. This will require a 2-inch waste and a 11⁄2-inch vent. There is in the drawing a 2-inch waste extending to the fixtures above. On the same line is a rain leader with a trap showing also a 4-inch floor drain. There are two 4-inch rain leaders on the opposite corners of the plan, in the rear of the building. There is a 4-inch soil stack for fixtures above and a 4-inch soil stack in the basement on the same line for a basement toilet. On the front there are rain leaders in each corner. These will be connected outside of the house trap (this feature should be noted). The outlets that are to discharge into the house drain are as follows:

  • Two 4-inch rain leaders.
  • One 2-inch sink waste.
  • One 2-inch wash tray waste.
  • One 4-inch floor drain.
  • One 4-inch soil pipe.
  • One 4-inch closet connection.
  • Two 4-inch front rain leaders to discharge into house sewer.

If we were to install this job, we would first locate each pipe that enters the house drain. The lowest outlet would be particularly noted, in this case the 4-inch floor drain. From this drain we must make sure that at least 1⁄4 inch to the foot fall is secured. We must then locate the house sewer where it enters the foundation wall, then the work can be started. I will not attempt to list the material that is necessary for this work, at this time. With all the material at hand the house drain is started. All of this work is installed under the ground, therefore trenches must be dug for all the piping. The plumber must lay these trenches out and in doing so he must have in mind all connections and the fittings he can use so that the trenches can be dug at the right angle. The trenches must be dug allowing a pitch for the pipe. The height of the cellar is 8 feet below the joists. A stick is cut 8 feet long which can be used to get the trenches below the cement floor at the right depth. After the digging is completed, the house trap, which is a 6-inch running trap, is caulked into a length of 6-inch cast-iron pipe. This piece of pipe is pushed out toward the sewer bringing the trap near the foundation wall, on the inside. The fittings and traps and pipe are caulked in place as fast as possible. When possible, the joints are caulked outside of the trench in an upright position. There are a number of different ways to caulk this pipe together, and to make it clear to the beginner just how it is done the following exercise is suggested. This job brings in the caulking of pipes, traps, and fittings in various positions. Two or three can work on this job together. Fig. 47 shows how the pipe and fittings are put together, which needs no further explanation. Therefore, we will go over in detail only the caulking of the joints in the various positions.

Fig. 47. Fig. 47.

Material Needed

One length of 4-inch extra heavy cast-iron pipe, single hub; two lengths of 4-inch extra heavy cast-iron pipe, double hub; one running trap, one full Y, one 4-inch 1⁄4 bend; two 4-inch clean-out screws with iron body; one 4-inch vent cap; one 4-inch 1⁄8 bend; 30 pounds of block lead; 2 pounds of oakum.

Tools Required

Ladle, asbestos pourer, hammer, cold chisel, yarning iron, two caulking irons, furnace and pot.

The beginner should start at the trap and caulk the joints with the trap held in place. The cold chisel should be sharp as it is used to cut the cast-iron pipe.

To caulk the straight end of cast-iron pipe into the hub end and make a water-tight joint when the pipe is in a vertical position, the spigot end of the pipe is entered into the hub end of another piece. A wad of oakum is taken and forced into the hub with the yarning iron. This piece of oakum is forced to the bottom of the hub, then another piece is put in. The oakum is set and packed by using the yarning iron and hammer. The hub is half filled with oakum. The oakum is forced tight enough to make a water-tight joint. If the oakum used comes in a bale, pieces of it will have to be taken and rolled into long ropes about 18 inches long, the thickness of the rope corresponding with the space between the hub and the pipe. If rope oakum is used, the strands of the rope can be used. After the oakum is well packed into place and the pipe is lined up and made straight, molten lead is poured in and the hub filled. When the lead has cooled, set the lead with the caulking tool and hammer, making one blow on each side of the joint. This sets the lead evenly on every side. If there is any surplus lead, it can now be cut off, using the hammer and cold chisel. The caulking iron is again taken and the lead next to the pipe is tamped, striking the iron with the hammer at an angle to drive the lead against the pipe. After this has been done all around, the caulking iron is held in such a position that the lead around the hub will receive the force of the blow. After this has been done, the center of the lead is caulked and the joint should be tight. With a little practice, this can be done very rapidly. The lead should be poured in while it is very hot. The caulking must not be done by hitting heavy blows as there is a possibility of splitting the hub and thereby rendering the joint unfit for use.