Fig. 167. Roughing-in for Adjacent Toilet-Rooms on Same Floor of Double-Flat Building.
Local vent stacks are round or rectangular, and are made of galvanized sheet iron. Unlike the soil or supply pipe system, the stack system is made proportional; that is, the area of the stack at any point is an approximation to the aggregate area of all the vent branches that have been connected into it up to that point. The local vent stack is sometimes carried into the same shaft which incloses the smoke-pipe from the boilers. In other cases it is connected with an exhaust fan driven by power, usually supplied by an electric motor, thus insuring a constant air-current. Bowl or local ventilation is not generally installed in dwellings. The closet does not receive such frequent usage in private houses as in larger buildings such as hotels, offices, etc.; and in the smaller structures there is no hot flue that can be depended upon for purposes of aspiration. If led to the open air, the vent will act very well in warm weather; but during the winter months it will be likely, through reversal of the current, to bring in cold air and disseminate the odor through the apartment.
Fig. 168. Plan of Complete Installation Shown in Part in Fig. 167..
Soil Pipe and Fittings. Under the head of specialties, many forms of patented soil-pipe traps and fittings have been placed on the market from time to time, with a view to lessening labor and cost and simplifying the work of roughing-in for plumbing fixtures. Of these, a singular instance of the use of one type will be noticed. Fig. 167 illustrates a well-known line used in roughing-in for the toilet-rooms of a double-flat building. Being drawn in perspective, the function and merit of every fitting shown is self-evident. Fig. 168 gives in plan view the roughing-in shown in Fig. 167. The location of the fixtures on the floor below the plan of piping, is indicated in solid lines by a, b, and c. On other floors, corresponding fixtures for the stack shown, are of course superimposed as a matter of economy and convenience. Fig. 169 is a broken general view of the waste and vent stacks for the laundries and Vent Stacks for Laundries and Kitehen Sinks of a and kitchen sinks of the same building, the rotighing-in work and some of the fixtures being shown. The regular standard soil-pipe and fittings can be made to answer for any case, although inconvenience and additional expense are often incurred in working fittings of standard dimensions in close quarters.
Fig. 169. Broken General View of Waste.
There are several weights of soil pipe and fittings used, varying with the building or with the requirements of city or state sanitary laws, etc. The weight known as standard is sometimes used on buildings under four stories in height, and for vent pipes and soil-pipe extensions above the highest fixture. Extra heavy pipe and fittings are used in tall buildings and in most ordinary work, for all soil and waste purposes below the highest fixture. The standard length of soil pipe for all diameters, is five feet, exclusive of hub.
Fig. 170 shows a regular single-hub length. Fig. 171 represents the double-hub length employed to avoid the use of double-hub fittings and extra joints where less than full lengths are required in cases where the cost of regular extension pieces would exceed- the price of double-hub pipe. Fig. 172 is a quarter-bend with double hub. It is of the long-sweep or long-radius pattern. The whole list of standard regular fittings is made in the long-radius pattern. They should be used where possible; but the shorter-radius type, corresponding to that shown in Figs. 173 to 180, is most generally employed because the little room available enables the plumber to lay lines in places where cramped conditions make the use of the long radius impossible.
Fig. 170. Single-Hub Length of Standard Soil-Pipe..
Fig. 171. Double-Hub Length of Standard Soil-Pipe..
Fig. 172. Quarter-Bend with Double Hub..
Short-Radius Bends for Soil-Pipe.
One-sixteenth, one-eighth, one - sixth , one-fourth, and return bends embrace the regular list of soil-pipe bends, giving a range in angles from 22 1/2 to 180 degrees in the same plane; and, by winding them, giving a twist to the joints, almost any angle with the original direction can be obtained.
A wider range of bends is offered in the recessed and threaded cast-iron drainage fittings for use with wrought pipe. Omitting the pitched ells and tees for regular fall, 5f degrees is the most obtuse fitting regularly made.
Fig. 176. Return Bend for Cast Soil-Pipe..