IF, instead of trying to show all the vertical stacks, branches and fixtures in a building on one conventional elevation, as in the former method shown in Fig. 65, a separate detail of each stack of soil pipe be made, or each stack that differs sufficiently from the other stacks to make a separate detail advisable, a clear, complete layout of the work will be had. For instance, take stack D, on the plan of the ground floor, Fig. 66. Every foot of pipe and each fitting in the horizontal drains can be counted up to the point where the stack connects into the horizontal drain. If, now, a detail of that stack, such as shown in Fig. 69, be made, the pipe, fittings, lead, oakum and hangers required to complete the stack through the roof can be easily ascertained. Owing to the layout of the various bathrooms, the detail of this stack will answer for all other stacks within the building, with the exception that the other stacks for outside tiers of bathrooms will not require the offset on the third floor of the building and the stacks for inside tiers of bathrooms will not require offsets either above the third floors or between the ceiling space of the first floor. This latter offset is made necessary for the outside tiers of bathrooms by reason of an arcade extending around two sides of the building and immediately under where the tiers of bathrooms are located. In designing the plumbing for a building the various stacks which differ from one another should be drawn out in detail, as indicated in the illustration and marked as Detail of Stack A, B, or whatever line it is meant to represent. That is the reason it is convenient to letter the various rising lines, so that they can easily be traced by referring to the corresponding detail of the line. In some installations the roughing-in for the toilet rooms on various floors can be shown in connection with the vertical stack, but owing to bathrooms being located on opposite sides of this stack, such a detail would not be practicable.
Fig. 69 Detail of Soil and Vent Stack
Fig. 70 Detail Plan of Bathrooms
The way the horizontal piping on the ground floor and the vertical stacks are to be run has now been shown, but no indication has yet been made of how the roughing-in of the bathrooms is to be done, and without which there would be an incompleteness of the plumbing details. The roughing-in of the bathrooms is shown in plan in Fig. 70, and in elevation in Fig. 71. These two drawings complete the details of the drainage system, and, by scaling them, the materials required can be accurately determined and the work necessary to install the materials estimated.
Fig. 71 Detail Elevation of Lead Work in Bath Rooms
Up to the present time only the drainage pipes have been shown above the ground floor plan. The fixtures are all to be supplied with hot and cold water, however, and some indication must be given the prospective estimator and contractor how these pipes are to be run. The rising lines of hot water, cold water and the circulation pipes are indicated on the various floor plans, and the supplies to the various bathrooms are taken off as shown in the detail, Fig. 72. A cross fitting is placed both in the hot water and in the cold water pipes and turned so that one branch can pass through the partition to supply water to the adjoining bathroom, while the other branch supplies water to the bathroom in which the risers are located. Escutcheons are provided where the pipes pass through the wall or ceiling, and the supply to each bathroom is controlled by means of an angle valve. The layout of
Fig. 72 Detail of Connections to Water
Pipes in Bathrooms water pipes in the bathrooms is shown in Fig. 73, which completes the details of water supply pipes so fully and completely that they can be traced from where the main enters the building to where they end at the several fixtures.
The drainage system and water supply pipes are not the only parts of the plumbing system which require detailing, however. The connections to the house tank and various other apparatus should be shown also. Connections and fittings for the house tank in the present example are shown in plan in Fig. 74 and in sectional elevation in Fig. 75. Before the tank can be detailed, the size of tank required must be calculated, as well as the size of pipe required for the pump. Having determined the size of tank, the size, weight and length of beams required for its support must be carefully worked out, so there will be no danger of the tank failing on account of its poor support. The condition and thickness of the walls on which the tank will rest must further be taken into account, and the exposure to winds as well as the wind pressure will enter into the load that must be supported in addition to the dead weight of tank and water. When the data required is all worked out, the various sizes and dimensions can be marked on the details. In many buildings which require a specially large water supply, special provision must be made for supporting the house tank.
Fig. 73 Detail of Water Pipes in Bathrooms
Fig. 74 Plan Detail of Water Tank
If the water supply is for a factory, or other type of low building, not many stories in height, a special tower for the support of the water tank may be erected in the yard, or a stand pipe may be built for the purpose. In other kinds of buildings, extra thick walls may be required to support the tank, or instead, reinforcing abutments, steel frame work or some other form of device may be resorted to. In some cases a rectangular tower of masonry is made part of the structure, having been designed especially as a support for the house tank.
Fig. 75 Elevation Detail of House Tank
In Fig. 76 is shown in elevation a view of the manifold headers, the hot, cold and circulation water supply connections, valves, drain pipes and hot water and circulation connections to the hot water tank. In Fig. 77 will be found an end elevation of the manifold headers and the various connections. The pump connections, suction tanks, meters and filter are so clearly shown on the plans and so fully covered in the specifications that details are not required for them, although, ordinarily, details would be desirable. In the case of the plans under discussion comparatively few details were necessary, chiefly owing to the fact that the bath rooms are practically duplicates of one another so that one set of details answered for the entire building. In other buildings, however, where there are numerous groups of fixtures each differing from the others, a complete set of details, covering the drainage, vent, hot and cold water pipes should be prepared for each group. It might be possible in some cases to combine the water-supply details, and drainage-pipe details for each group on one set of drawings. When, however, that would complicate the detail to such an extent that it would lack in clearness, the better plan would be to make separate details of both the water supply and the drainage work, as was done in the present example.
Fig. 76 Front Elevation Detail of Manifolds
Fig. 77 End Detail of Manifold