Hospital plumbing stands in a class by itself, and there is, perhaps, no other kind of building in which good plumbing work, materials and fixtures are of so much importance, particularly in that part of the installation which has to do with surgical cases and the preparation for operations. There are four divisions of the plumbing in hospitals - that which is installed for the general welfare of the patients, the fixtures and apparatus required for the institution as a whole, provision for the doctors and nurses, and apparatus and fixtures used in the curing of diseases and performing of operations.
In all large hospitals the patients may be roughly grouped as private cases, ward patients and children. The private patients are quartered in private rooms, the same as in a hotel building, and bath rooms should be provided adjoining these private rooms in the same manner as in hotels and club buildings.
In private rooms which are not connected with a bath room stationary lavatories, at least, should be provided.
For the accommodation of ward patients general toilet rooms, also bathing facilities, are provided convenient to the wards, and in the receiving wards showers which can be operated by an attendant from a distance are very desirable, particularly where charity patients are received, so that when necessary the incoming patient can be thoroughly scrubbed before being assigned to quarters in the hospital.
Pig. 115 Typical Swimming Pool Scene
For the children's ward a bath room can be fitted up in which infants' and children's baths are installed. Likewise in the toilet rooms children's closets, which are only about twelve inches high, may be specified instead of the standard size of closets.
For the institution in general a kitchen and diet kitchen, a laundry, water-heating apparatus, fire lines, helps' toilet and bathing accommodations, engineers' toilet room and sundry other provisions will be necessary. In like manner toilet and bathing facilities will be necessary for the doctors and nurses.
Fig. 116 A Thorough Wash Before Entering Swimming Pool
All of the foregoing enumerated sanitary requirements are common to all institutions of this character and differ but little in the various hospitals. When, however, the matter of sanitary appliances for use in the surgical wing of the building is to be considered it will be well to go over the matter thoroughly with the surgeon having charge of that branch of the hospital work. Before doing so the designer should familiarize himself with the various fixtures and appliances designed for hospital service and the advantages and limitations of each when they have been installed.
Fig. 117 An Outdoor Gymnasium
Portable bath tubs on wheels, some of them fitted with frames for the immersion of typhoid-fever and sunstroke patients, are among the plumbing fixtures which will be required, and a sink or other receptor, set with the top level with the floor, will be found necessary for drawing off the waste water from the tubs. Further, hot and cold water faucets, with long swing spouts set over the sink, will be required for filling the tubs.
Fig. 118 Typical Wadingr-pool Scene. Children's Playground
Slop sinks will be required at suitable places to facilitate the cleaning of wards, rooms and corridors, and floor drains will be found necessary in some places - as, for instance, the operating rooms, autopsy rooms and morgue. A battery of lavatories fitted with knee-action or pedal arrangements for turning on or shutting off water and operating the waste plug will be found desirable in the doctors' wash room, where they clean their hands before and after operations.
Hospital sinks will be required in the examining rooms, operating rooms, morgue, wards, toilet rooms, sterilizing rooms and, possibly, at other points, while hospital lavatories with knee-action or pedal-operated cocks will be found desirable in the operating, sterilizing and anesthizing rooms. At some of the fixtures in the operating, sterilizing and other rooms connected with the operating room, sterilized water will be required, and special water-distilling apparatus will be necessary for this purpose, together with the pipes leading to the fixtures. Sterilizing apparatus will likewise be required and will be located, no doubt, in a special room set aside for sterilizing purposes. In this room, in addition to lavatories and a sink, large, deep vats or tubs, similar to sinks but much deeper and provided with plugs, will be necessary for holding antiseptic fluids. A portable immersion tub of this description set upon a framework with wheels will be found convenient for moving from place to place - as, for instance, into an operating room - so that basins and other utensils used during an operation can be immersed from time to time in the antiseptic solution.
Fig. 119 Typical Drinking Fountain Scene
In the laboratory considerable plumbing will likewise be required, the kind and amount depending largely upon the size and completeness of the laboratory equipment. Autopsy tables with waste connections in the autopsy room, and mortuary slabs in the morgue, will also be required, and sinks will be convenient in most of the rooms referred to in the surgical quarter.
In addition to all of the fixtures and apparatus enumerated in the foregoing paragraphs a complete Turkish bath will be found of value in all large hospitals, while apparatus for hydrotherapeutic treatment of patients will be found necessary in some hospitals and sanitariums.