That part of the work on the plumbing system known as the "roughing-in" is shown in Plate 24.

As will be noted, when the work has progressed to this point, all soil piping has been run, from a point 10 ft. outside the foundation, through the cellar, and all stacks run up through the roof, their vent stacks also run and completed, all waste fittings and vent fittings on mains inserted, and all branch fixture wastes and vents completed as far as possible. In the roughing, the fresh-air inlet is included, all cleanouts on the soil piping, rain leaders if they are to enter the drainage system inside the cellar, all floor and yard drains, etc.

Plate XXIV. "Roughing-In" - Use Of Cleanouts

Roughing, with Work Plate 24.

Ready for Water Test

Roughing In 76

In fact, when the roughing is complete, little should remain to be done before the fixtures are set in place. The water test is generally applied to the plumbing at this point. This, when properly applied, is a most thorough test, and a test which cannot be applied after the walls are plastered.

Therefore, in the roughing, just as much of the work should be included as possible, in order that as much of the piping and as many of the joints as possible may be tested with hydraulic pressure.

Therefore, all fixture wastes and vents should be completed if practicable, or brought as near completion as possible.

The vent for the water closet may almost always be completed, unless nickel is to be used. Traps that are located under floors may usually be placed in position, inlet connections made as far as possible, and the outlet into the stack completed. All ferrule connections, whether on the vent or on the drainage system, should be made before the roughing can be considered complete. It will be noted that sizes" for all pipes in the plumbing system of Fig. 24 are given, these sizes corresponding to the sizes demanded in most plumbing ordinances.

In the case of the kitchen sink, however, some ordinances now require a 2-in. waste instead of 1 1/2 in., a requirement which is in the line of good practice.

When the fixture wastes are roughed in, great care should be taken that the long runs of lead pipe beneath floors are properly supported.

If not supported, the lead pipe is very sure to sag, thus forming traps in the waste. The best method is to support straight runs of lead waste on boards, properly secured.

Fixture wastes of greater length than 6 ft. should always be run of more rigid material than lead, either of cast or galvanized wrought iron or of brass.

As elsewhere noted, nothing but coated cast-iron pipe should ever be used underground, as the action of the moisture of the earth is very harmful to wrought-iron or steel pipe, and also to unprotected cast-iron pipe. There is really no necessity for coating cast-iron pipe that is not buried, with tar or asphaltum, for, excepting when underground, there is rarely any harmful action that takes place.