Owing to the nature of the waste that enters the urinal, it is the most difficult of all toilet-room fixtures to keep in a clean and sanitary condition.
The foul air noticed in many public toilet rooms that are not properly provided for and attended to, is due in a large measure to foul urinals, this cause no doubt, being greater than the use of water closets. The local vent may be very effectively applied to the urinal, and results in lessening the nuisance mentioned very perceptibly. In Fig. A, Plate 43, is shown a method of applying the local vent to the single urinal or to groups of them when of the lip pattern. The piping for the urinal is concealed behind the back urinal slab or behind a partition. From the house side of the urinal trap the local vent connection is made, it being connected directly into a main horizontal local vent line, which should be carried into a heated flue under the same conditions as prescribed for the local vent serving a line of water closets. The main should be proportioned in size so that at any point its area shall be equal to the combined areas of the branch vents that have been connected into it. A strong draft in the heated flue will result not only in drawing the foul odors out of the connections, but from the fixture itself, and from the room. It is very necessary that a heated flue should be used, and for the ventilation of large toilet rooms a special flue should be used and kept heated the year round. The connection of the local vent does not interfere with the connection of the trap vent, which is, of course, taken off the other side of the trap, and may be connected into a main vent line above the floor, the trap entering a main line of waste either above or below the floor. In Fig. D is shown a system of local venting applied to another form of urinal. These vents should also enter a heated flue. In order to better show the remaining connections, the trap vents have been omitted in Fig. D. The local venting of urinal traps has the disadvantage of producing on the seals a higher rate of evaporation, but when used in public toilet rooms the urinals are more or less constantly in use, and the loss of seal thereby continually renewed. In the case of a urinal seldom used, it would be unwise for this reason, to apply the local vent.
Plate XLIII. Urinals For Public Toilet Rooms
Plate 43. Urinals for Public Toilet Rooms
End View of Line of Urinals.
As to the form in which the urinal is made there is a great variety of choice.
One of the most common forms is the lip urinal, shown in Fig. A, which is supported on a slate or marble back by means of bolts, and receives its flush through a urinal cock by direct pressure or from a tank located above it, which may or may not be of auto-matic action. In Plate 44 is shown a line of these fixtures, from which it will be seen that such a line may be provided with continuous vents to advantage.
The various forms of slate urinals are also very common. Figs. B and C show two of these forms, the latter showing a double line with single dividing partition. In the urinal of Fig. B, the waste, striking the two drip slabs, is washed down into a gutter, formed in the concrete floor, by means of water discharged from two per-porated flush pipes running lengthwise. This flush keeps the slabs wet at all times, all liquids being washed away as they fall upon the slab. More commonly in use than this type of urinal, however, is that shown in Fig. C, which consists of a vertical drip slab with perforated flush pipe, the waste liquids being washed into the cement gutter or into a cast-iron gutter. The ends of such gutters should be provided with metal connections and cast- or wrought-iron trap of not less than 2 in. diameter connected into the waste. All urinals should be provided with slate or marble floor slabs, and any wall surface that is exposed and within 5 ft. of a urinal should be constructed of Portland cement or other impervious material. The urinal gutter should also be constructed of like material.
In connection with the cast-iron urinal gutter mentioned above, it should be added that to be strictly sanitary the gutter should be lined with enamel, in order to prevent any corrosion due to the presence of the urine in the waste. All lip urinals should be of the flushing-rim pattern, in order that all surfaces of the urinal may be as thoroughly scoured and cleansed by the flush as possible. In Fig. D is shown a set of three porcelain urinals, flushed by means of an automatic flush tank.
The porcelain urinal is a massive fixture and especially adapted to the service of public toilet rooms and comfort stations, which demand the most perfect sanitary conditions possible, usually without question of expense. The flush pipe is concealed in the fixture itself, the flush entering each urinal through a spreader, which throws it upon every part of the exposed surfaces, these surfaces being so formed as to allow the flush to cleanse them to the best advantage. An excellent feature of this form of urinal is that no metal parts or trimmings are exposed, and thus there is nothing which may corrode by contact with the urine. The addition of the local vent completes in this fixture the highest sanitary excellence to be found in urinal construction. The porcelain trough urinal shown in elevation in Fig. C, Plate 41, and in section in Fig. E, Plate 43, has been fully described under the former plate, and is to be considered an excellent fixture for public toilet-room work.
The pedestal urinal of porcelain, is one of the latest types of urinal to appear on the market, and is also of much excellence. Another recent urinal of high-grade construction is the siphon-jet urinal, supplied from a tank. In this fixture, a heavy body of water is at all times maintained. When the tank is operated, the flush enters through the flushing rim and through a jet, in the same manner as in the siphon-jet water closet. This action results in siphoning the entire body of water out of the fixture, which is of the lip pattern.
Flushing valves may be applied to the urinal to advantage, as shown in Plate 42. These valves may be concealed, as in Fig. C, or exposed, as in Figs. A and B.
Automatic flushing of urinals, as illustrated and considered in Plate 41, is along the line of good practice. When the flushing of this fixture is left to the user of it, this important matter is often neglected, the result being a foul-smelling toilet room. Automatic flushing does away with much of the nuisance arising from this cause.
In Plate 44 a line of urinals is shown in connection with the Durham system. The drainage of this system is entirely of wrought-iron or steel pipe, upon which the action of the acids in the urine passing from the urinals is especially harmful. This action is far less serious on cast-iron pipe, and presents additional argument in favor of the use of the latter material for drainage purposes.
As elsewhere intimated, the public toilet room should be provided with the advantage of good ventilation and with an abundant supply of light. Without these advantages the urinal becomes a foul and unsanitary fixture.