Anyone who is acquainted with the work of the plumber well knows that it is not fine fixtures and nickel trimmings that make up the sum total of a sanitary plumbing system. Indeed, the sanitary character of the plumbing system depends much more upon the manner in which the concealed piping is installed than upon that part of the work which is exposed to view. A bath room, for instance, may be provided with every luxury in the form of high-grade fixtures and brass work and trimmings, and apparently be all that could possibly be asked for, and at the same time the piping under the floor and in the partitions may be of the most unsanitary character and of the poorest workmanship.

Fig. 117.   Double Trapping Produced by Sagging of Waste Pipe.

Fig. 117. - Double-Trapping Produced by Sagging of Waste Pipe.

Fig. 118.   Lavatory Double Trapped.

Fig. 118. - Lavatory Double-Trapped.

In Fig. 117, for instance, the sagging of the lead waste results in double-trapping the fixture, which is always a serious matter.

In the running of long lines of lead waste, the proper supporting of the pipe is a matter of much importance, and a matter which is often sadly neglected. Another instance of the double-trapping of a fixture is to be noted in Fig. 118. The latter does not come so much from carelessness as it does from ignorance on the part of the workman, or from an attempt to complete the work with the least possible expense to the plumber. These glaring errors, however, are very much less in evidence in sections that come under the plumbing inspector's control than in the smaller towns that are not thus favored.

Fig. 119.   Kitchen Sink and Wash Trays Served by One Trap.   Poor Practice.

Fig. 119. - Kitchen Sink and Wash Trays Served by One Trap. - Poor Practice.

Fig. 120.   Lavatory and Bath Tub Connected into Drum Trap.   Poor Practice.

Fig. 120. - Lavatory and Bath Tub Connected into Drum Trap. - Poor Practice.

Fig. 121.   Sink and Wash Trays Connected into Drum Trap.   Poor Practice.

Fig. 121. - Sink and Wash Trays Connected into Drum Trap. - Poor Practice.

Fig. 122.   One Waste Entrance only for the Three Bath Room Fixtures.

Fig. 122. - One Waste Entrance only for the Three Bath Room Fixtures.

Many of the most objectionable features connected with the installation of fixture wastes, however, come from the neglect to provide proper facilities for carrying the waste away, rather than from work that is installed with such errors as those shown above. It is a very common practice, for instance, to serve two fixtures by one trap, as in Figs. 119, 120, and 121. This practice arises most often in the case of the kitchen sink and wash trays, and in the case of lavatory and bath tub, and is a practice that is followed in a great many cities having plumbing ordinances which require a separate trap under each fixture. Briefly stated, the principle involved is, that as far as possible, each fixture should be separately trapped, and have a separate entrance into the drainage system, and the consideration of the latter is the chief feature of this chapter. It may, perhaps, be considered to best advantage in the case of bath room connections. The work shown in Fig. 122, in which the wastes from all three fixtures of the bath room are provided with but one entrance into the drainage system, is very often to be seen even in cities which pride themselves on their high standard of plumbing. It cannot be denied, however, that this is very poor work. Fig. 123 shows an improvement in providing a second entrance for the bath and lavatory. This would in general, no doubt pass muster as a fairly good piece of work, but it cannot be compared with the work of Fig. 124, in which each fixture is provided with its own separate entrance into the drainage system.

Fig. 123.   Connections Preferable to Those of Fig. 122.

Fig. 123. - Connections Preferable to Those of Fig. 122.

Fig. 124.   Separate Waste Entrance for Each Fixture.

Fig. 124. - Separate Waste Entrance for Each Fixture.

Fig. 125.   Separate Waste Entrances by Means of Special Fittings.

Fig. 125. - Separate Waste Entrances by Means of Special Fittings.

Fig. 126.   Separate Waste Entrances by Means of Special Fittings.

Fig. 126. - Separate Waste Entrances by Means of Special Fittings.

Fig. 124 certainly represents the most sanitary and workmanlike arrangement of waste connections. In such work a stoppage on either waste affects that fixture alone, and has no influence on the working of any other fixture, while in the other work mentioned a single stoppage at certain points is able to prevent the use of two, or even all three, fixtures.

The special fittings which have recently appeared on the market in such numbers and in such variety of form are of the greatest aid in obtaining separate waste entrance for fixtures, but in addition provide means of obtaining continuous vents. Two examples of the use of special fittings are to be seen in Figs. 125 and 126, and at various other points in this work other similar instances may be noted.