Another point that requires mention is the fact that if the pipe had laid upon its side instead of upon end, when the two views were made, the plan would then have been what the elevation now is, but shown lengthwise or horizontally, instead of vertically. The elevation in that case would be the same as the plan view now shows. If careful study is given to the foregoing simple principles, the subject of plan and elevation will be fairly well understood.

In looking over sketches drawn by workmen, it is especially noticeable that they invariably confuse plan and elevation in showing fixtures, such as sinks, lavatories, wash trays, water closets, etc. To give them a clearer idea of how these fixtures should be shown, Figs. 336 to 339 are given.

These several views are of common fixtures, and in most cases it is as well to show these simple forms of fixtures in drawings, as to show views of fixtures that are more complicated. For instance, the views shown of the lavatory would be much more easily made than those of many of the fancy, high grade lavatories, and they would show the principles involved fully as well.

One very important fact to be remembered, is that no one mechanical view can show all sides of an object, or give all the information that is to be obtained. It is one of the greatest faults of those who are not conversant with the subject, to endeavor to make a certain view show facts concerning an object which cannot possibly be shown by that view. The result of such attempts is usually a distorted drawing which can only be understood after much study and surmising as to the meaning of the one who made it.

The drawings which the plumber will generally require are made up largely of piping, and experience shows that the plumber in making such drawings will have better results if he will draw single lines for his pipe, instead of double lines, such as are shown on all illustrations in this work, with the exception of several in this chapter.

Figs. 336 337.   Plan and Elevations of Common Fixtures.

Figs. 336-337. - Plan and Elevations of Common Fixtures.

Figs. 338 339.   Plan and Elevations of Common Fixtures.

Figs. 338-339. - Plan and Elevations of Common Fixtures.

Fig. 340 will serve as an illustration of the advice to use single lines, and when compared with many other illustrations in this work of similar nature, it will be seen that the labor in making the single line drawing is very much less, and in general shows the desired principles with equal clearness. The plumber, in making drawings, especially if he is only fair in his execution, should cut out all unnecessary detail. It is often full as well to omit drawing fixtures, simply showing traps and connections, and by proper lettering showing the location of the several fixtures. This feature also appears in Fig. 340. The sizes of pipes may be indicated by figures as in the same illustration, although it is often well to indicate the main lines of pipe by heavier lines than those used for the rest of the work.

If the drawing is in pencil, and it is desired to distinguish between the venting and the drainage, it may be done by the use of red and blue pencils, one color for the venting, and the other for the drainage. Different colored inks may be used in the same way on drawings made in ink.

Another method is the use of broken lines for the vent work, and full lines for the drainage. These same methods are often used also in drawings showing systems of hot water supply and systems of steam and hot water heating, broken lines or blue lines showing returns, and full lines or red lines showing supply pipes. It is often very desirable, and sometimes necessary, in making drawings which are to show changes and additions to the plumbing system, to use these same methods in distinguishing between the old and the new work. This idea is brought out in Fig. 341, and is often used on drawings submitted to boards of health or plumbing boards.

Before leaving the subject of drawing, the matter of scale drawings should be considered. This branch of the subject is of great importance to the plumber, inasmuch as all architects' drawings are of this nature. The plumber must understand scale drawings, in order to be able to figure lengths of piping, etc., from architects' plans.

It is obviously impossible to provide drawings of such a thing as a house, of full size. In order then to provide drawings of buildings, the architect reduces the size to such dimensions as will be desirable. Such reduced drawings are in the actual proportions of the building itself, but on a very much smaller scale. The most common architect's scale is 1/4 inch to the foot, although on large building plans, 1/8 inch to the foot is often used. The scale used is always named on each drawing of the set of plans. If the scale is 1/4 inch to the foot, a quarter inch measured anywhere on the plan, means that the same measurement on the building itself would give one foot.

Fig. 340.   Single Line Elevation of Plumbing System.

Fig. 340. - Single-Line Elevation of Plumbing System.

Fig. 341.   Single Line Elevation Showing Changes on Old Plumbing System.

Fig. 341. - Single-Line Elevation Showing Changes on Old Plumbing System.

In Figs. 342 and 343 are shown two cellar plans of the same house and piping, the small one being just half the size of the large one. Supposing that the upper plan is drawn at 1/8 inch to the foot, and the lower one at 1/4 inch to the foot, an eight inch measured on the upper represents one foot, and a quarter inch measured on the lower represents one foot also. In referring to building plans in figuring work, care should always be taken before entering on the work, to ascertain the scale of the drawing. The writer can recall instances that have come to his knowledge, of plumbers figuring stock from plans drawn at one-eighth scale, as if they were drawn at a quarter scale, the result being that only one-half the straight pipe actually necessary for the work was figured on.

The only special knowledge necessary to the plumber concerning scale drawings is the use of the scale, which is a very simple matter. It simply means that in figuring lengths of pipe, whether vertical or horizontal, from the plans and elevation, as many feet should be allowed for the pipe as the distances measure in quarter or eighth inches, according to the scale of the drawings. Thus, on a cellar plan drawn at 1/4 inch to the foot, a line of pipe measuring 5 1/4 inches would represent a length of pipe of 21 feet.

In Figs. 344 to 347 are shown the cellar and floor plans and elevation of a two story house. The elevation will show the vertical heights by the measurements of a, b, c, d and e.

A very important matter in many cases, is the offsetting of vertical lines of pipe, shown by the location of risers on the cellar and floor plans. If the estimator is careless in his work, he is liable to estimate vertical lines of pipe without giving attention to offsets. This will cause him to leave out fittings from his estimate, and pipe also, in the case of long offsets.

Figs. 342 343.   Scale Drawing.

Figs. 342-343. - Scale Drawing.

Figs. 344 347.   Cellar and Floor Plans and Elevation of House.

Figs. 344-347. - Cellar and Floor Plans and Elevation of House.

Referring to Figs. 344-347, it will be seen from the location of stack A in the cellar and first floor plans, that it has no offset at these points, but has a straight rise. Its location on the second floor plan, however, shows that it does offset at the second floor, necessitating the estimating of two elbows, and a certain length of straight pipe.

The location of -tack B in the three plans shows that this line of pipe rises through the roof without offsetting at any point.

In the case of stack C, the three locations of the riser show no offset at the first floor, but there is one at the second floor.

While the foregoing is by no means a complete treatise on this subject, the writer believes that those points which have special application to the plumber's requirements, have been touched upon, and that a careful study of the facts and suggestions given, will be of much assistance to any plumber who desires to perfect himself along these lines.