It is necessary to give a few suggestions concerning the wiping of upright joints, for wiped joints must often be made in this position. In Fig. 14 is shown an upright joint set up and ready for wiping.

Below the joint something should be arranged to catch the solder falling from the joint. The method shown in Fig. 14, consists in the use of a sufficiently large piece of cardboard, fitting closely to the pipe and cut through to the edge, as shown, in order that it may be slipped on. This cardboard may rest on any support that may be conveniently used. Another means sometimes used consists of a funnel-shaped lead collar fitting closely about the pipe and close under the joint, collecting the solder in the manner of a saucer. It is claimed that having this collar close to the joint allows the metal to heat up the joint at this point effectually, and to hold the heat.

In making an upright joint, unless the workman is skillful in pouring the metal from the ladle, it will be necessary to have what is known as a splash stick, which is illustrated in Fig. 14, with which to throw the solder onto the joint.

The plumber may make his own splash stick out of any piece of wood at hand.

It should be about 6 or 7 inches long, 1/8 inch thick, and 1 1/4 inches wide in the wide part. In getting the solder onto the joint, splash the solder onto the upper part of it and all around it.

With the splash stick keep pulling the solder up onto the upper part of the joint.

When the solder has reached the right consistency and amount on the joint, shape it roughly with the splash stick, then wipe it quickly with the cloth. In all wiping work, the secret of successful work is quickness without any lost motions.

Attention may now be given to the wiping of branch joints, as shown by Nos. 3 and 4 of Fig. 10. With the gimlet or tap borer open the pipe at the point where the joint is to be wiped, being careful not to rough up the inside of the pipe opposite the opening.

The hole should be made smaller than the final requirement, and the lead then beaten out with the bending pin into the form of a collar, the inside of which should be beveled off to receive the end of the branch, Next bevel the end of the branch pipe to fit into the collar. By the way, in getting the pipes ready for wiping, before anything else is done the pipe should be drifted out with the drift plug and dressed, so that it is in perfect condition. After fitting the pipes, apply soil or plumber's paste, as the case may be. If the latter is used, go over the work with fine sand paper before applying it.

After the paste or soil has been applied, scribe out the shape of the joint with the shave hook, then with the same tool shave off the surfaces that the joint is to cover.

A word of caution is necessary concerning the use of the shave hook. It is necessary only to remove the oxidized surface and thus thoroughly clean it, and entirely unnecessary to cut deeply into the lead. If a deep shave is made, the strength of the lead at this point will be much impaired. As soon as shaved, the joint should be thoroughly covered with tallow. The work is now ready to be set up and wiped. If pipe holders are not used for supporting the work, various methods may be used for holding the branch in position, depending largely on the location of the work and the conveniences at hand. Generally the branch may be supported against a wall or other vertical surface, or if long, it may be bent around to any convenient support and afterwards straightened.

The flange joint, as shown in No. 5 of Fig. 10, is the most easily wiped of the several joints.

It is used where the pipe passes through the floor or through a wall. The pipe coming through the floor should be of sufficient length above the floor to be flanged over. A good method is to cut a hole in a piece of paper of sufficient size, slip the paper over the pipe, and allow it to rest on the floor to collect the solder dropping from the joint. Flange the lead pipe over onto the floor, beating it down smoothly. In flanging the pipe, use the turn pin to turn it over as far as possible.

The edge of the flanged lead may be left as it is, or may be shaved to a sharp edge, as shown in No. 5. If the latter method is followed, it should be shaved before being flanged over. The soil or paste should next be applied, and the surfaces shaved as already described for other joints. After the flange has been wiped, the paper may be cut out around the joint, so that it does not show. It is a good plan, by the way, in using soil or paste, to apply it inside the pipes, so that the solder may not run through into the inside of the pipe any more than possible.

No. 6, Fig. 10, shows a lead pipe wiped onto a trap. There is no different principle employed on this work than in making the branch joint in No. 3. In turning out a collar on the trap, to receive the pipe, care must be taken that the side of the trap is not collapsed, for many traps are now made of such thin material that any rough usage is liable to produce this result. The use of the lead pipe expanding pliers will be found satisfactory for such work.

Fig. 15.   Wrong Methods of Making Wiped Joints.

Fig. 15. - Wrong Methods of Making Wiped Joints.

In Fig. 15 are shown three joints prepared in a very poor and unworkmanlike manner. In the first place, no branch should project inside a pipe as it not only cuts down the available area of the pipe, but also presents a serious obstruction in the pipe. In one of the branch joints shown, the branch is fitted around the outside of the collar. This is a very poor practice, as it allows the end of the collar to form an obstruction which, especially in the case of waste pipes, is liable to catch threads and other similar materials in the waste, producing final stoppage. This difficulty could be somewhat lessened by beveling the inner edges of the collar, although such work is wrong under any conditions.