In Fig. 134 is shown another form of water-closet, known as the siphon-jet type, which represents the most perfect water-closet which has yet been devised.
The action of this fixture is the result not only of a contracted horizontal outlet leg, but also of a special jet or passage, which throws a strong stream or jet of water directly up into the rising arm of the trap. The jet is formed by a passage cast on the outside of the bowl, communicating with the point at which the flush enters the fixture, and delivering the jet through the opening at the bottom of the trap. This jet aids the flush that enters the bowl through the flushing rim, in quickly filling the outlet leg, and in producing the necessary vacuum,- upon which the action of the siphon water-closet depends. This type of water-closet is exceedingly strong in its action, and as already stated, represents the most advanced type now in use.
Fig. 134. - The Siphon-Jet, Low-Down Water-Closet.
The siphon water-closets, then, show the following desirable features: Their action results in the rapid withdrawal of the entire contents of the fixture, which is comparatively noiseless; the scouring action is very strong; there are no unflushed surfaces; there is no waste of energy as seen in the wash-out type; all soil entering the bowl is submerged, and the fixture is very compact and graceful in design.
In Fig. 134 the flush tank shown is of the low-down pattern.
This style of tank has now come into very extensive use, until at the present time it has almost entirely superseded the high tank in many sections of the country.
The low-down tank is no more efficient than the high tank, but to many its appearance is more tasteful than the high tank. The low-down tank combination is more compact, and may be used in many places where it is difficult or impossible to obtain the necessary elevation for the high tank. The low-down tank is also more accessible in case of repairs than the high tank, which must often be taken down in order that the working parts may be gotten at.
Fig. 135. - Connections for Water-Closet.
The high tank generally delivers its flush through a 1 1/4-inch pipe, its ability to throw a large volume of water into the fixture quickly, depending upon the elevation of the tank. The absence of elevation of the low-down tank is surmounted by providing a connection of larger size between the tank and water-closet. This connection is usually 2 inches in diameter, which is of sufficient size to throw enough water into the bowl to make its action entirely satisfactory.
Whenever the low-down tank is used, it is necessary to use in connection with it, a water-closet of the siphon type, as satisfactory results cannot be obtained from the use of water-closets of less positive action.
Owing to the nature of its construction, the water-closet must be connected to the drainage system in a different manner than other fixtures.
Fig. 135 will show the manner in which these connections are generally made, when the drainage pipes are of cast iron. As shown, the connection is made by means of a lead bend connecting to the outlet of the water-closet. The lead bend is wiped to a 4-inch brass ferrule, and the latter calked into the cast-iron fitting. The vent is generally taken from the lead bend, the proper point of connection being on the upper part of the horizontal section of the bend.
Fig. 136. - Water-Closet Floor Connections.
The lead bend and water-closet may be connected in several ways. The simplest and least satisfactory method is by means of the putty joint, the top of the lead bend being flanged over onto the floor, after which a ring of putty is laid on top, and the base of the water-closet screwed down onto the putty. The putty spreads and forms a joint between the lead bend and the water-closet. The objections to this method are, that if the fixture receives a blow, or the floor settles, the joint cracks, allowing a leakage of water around the base of the fixture. The oil of the putty works into the flooring and discolors it.
In Fig. 136 are shown types of floor connections, which it will readily be seen, are far superior to the putty connection. In the method shown at the right, the lead bend is brought up above the floor a short distance, and to it the brass floor flange D is soldered. On the flange, the rubber gasket E is placed, the bolts inserted, and the fixture set in position, after which the nuts are screwed onto the bolts, and the latter made tight. This draws the rubber gasket up against the base of the water-closet, making a gas-tight and water-tight joint.
In making the floor connection seen at the left in Fig. 136, the floor is cut to receive the flange C, which is soldered to the lead bend, the exposed upper edge of which should be smoothed, in order that there may be no rough places on which substances in the waste may catch. The upper part of the lead bend may be painted with white lead to which the edges of the rubber gasket will strongly adhere. The flange B is then dropped into place, the rubber gasket forced on, the bolts put in, the closet set in position, and the bolts drawn up. The flange C takes the weight of the lead bend, thus taking all strain off the base of the closet. The flange B being loose, accommodates itself to any unevenness in the setting of the bowl. In these last two respects, the connection last named is superior to the first named.
The floor connections described are for use only when the cast-iron drainage system is employed. Other methods must be employed when the Durham system is in use. The connections of the water-closet in use on the Durham system are shown in Fig. 137, from which it will be seen that no lead is used in the work. The floor connection is made by means of a brass floor flange, screwing into the iron bend. This floor flange is shown in separate detail in Fig. 137.