Several of these fittings are to be seen in Figs. 143 to 146. The fitting of Fig. 143 is a common stock fitting, known as the vented T-Y. This fitting is an excellent one, and where practicable to use it. the work may be made very rigid and substantial, and the labor called for is considerably less than in venting from the lead bend in the usual manner. The chief objection to its use is that it brings the water-closet farther out into the room than is desirable, in many cases. Fig. 144 shows a fitting constructed on the same general principles as the vented T-Y, but with the hub, to which the lead bend is connected, much closer to the wall. This advantage is secured by constructing the waste entrance in such a way that it enters the main body of the fitting spirally, on the side. These fittings may be secured with the hub on either the right or left hand. The vent is taken off the fitting in a manner similar to that of Fig. 143.

Fig. 144 also shows the use of a special revent fitting, which has an offset, allowing a connection between the vent hub of the waste fitting and the main vent line. It will readily be seen that the use of these two fittings effects a great saving in labor in the construction.

In Fig. 145 is shown a fitting of different character, for use on horizontal lines of soil pipe, whereas those shown in Figs. 143 and 144 are for vertical lines.

If this fitting is used for the lowest water-closet on the system, the main vent line may often be connected into its vent opening, answering at the same time as the vent for the water-closet itself.

Fig. 146 shows the same fitting as in Fig. 145, used on a horizontal line of soil pipe serving several water-closets. The waste openings of these fittings, it will be observed, point out in such a direction that lead bends must be used in making the connections. The vents from these fittings may be constructed of ordinary pipe and fittings, as in Fig. 145, or with special revent fittings, as shown in Fig. 146.

Figs. 147, 148, and 149 show excellent methods of wasting and venting water-closets by means of special fittings. The method of Fig. 147, in which the temple vent fitting is used, is probably the least common of the three, but is nevertheless to be considered a specially good one, and there would appear to be little reason for its limited use.

Figs. 143 146.   The Use of Special Water Closet Waste and Vent Fittings.

Figs. 143-146. - The Use of Special Water-Closet Waste and Vent Fittings.

It often happens, especially in tenement and apartment houses, that water-closets on the several floors, back up to each other on opposite sides of a partition. Under such conditions, a good method of wasting and venting is seen in Fig. 150, by the use of a vented double T-Y. An improvement on this method, however, is that of Fig. 151, in which a special fitting known as a sanitary cross with double vent is made use of, in connection with the double revent fitting shown.

It will be noticed that while the use of these special fittings must necessarily save a considerable amount of labor as compared with ordinary methods, other advantages are also gained. They often make the drainage and vent piping and their connections much more compact, and reduce the number of joints greatly. The latter is a feature of importance, as the smaller the number of joints there are on any plumbing system, the less liability there will be of defects and of stoppages.

Other special water-closet waste and vent fittings of much value are to be seen in Figs. 152 to 155.

The fitting A in Fig. 152 is a double T-Y with double vents. When this fitting is made use of, the double vent fitting shown will be found of more advantage than vents of pipe and ordinary fittings. From the top of the double-vent fitting, a short revent fitting similar to that of Fig. 144 may be used, or the connection made with pipe and fittings. If the latter method is adopted, the reader will easily see that it cannot be accomplished, either with cast- or wrought-iron pipe, without the use of several more joints than appear in the work of Fig. 152. Another fitting, similar to A, is shown at B, it being provided with a single vent instead of a double vent.

It would appear that as efficient work may be accomplished with B as with A, as far as the venting of the two water-closets is concerned, and the number of fittings used with A and the labor necessary will certainly be greater than in the case of B. C shows still another vented waste fitting, similar to that of Fig. 144, but with an extra inlet for the waste of another fixture. The revent fitting connected to the vent opening of the waste fitting, is also provided with an additional opening to receive the vent from the fixture entering the special waste inlet of the waste fitting. The revent fitting may be secured with the additional opening located as shown, or on either side of the fitting. . If the bath waste enters the additional opening of the waste fitting, and its half-S trap is located within a short distance of the stack, the vent for the water-closet may act also as the vent for the bath trap. Fig. 153 shows a special offset fitting, D, for use in connection with the vented T-Y, when the latter is used to serve a water-closet on the lowest floor, or when no other fixtures enter the stack below the water-closet. This offset connects the vent stack into the soil stack as now generally required, and also serves as the vent for the water-closet.

Fig. 147.   Water Closet Vented into Temple Vent Fitting.

Fig. 147. - Water-Closet Vented into Temple Vent Fitting.

Fig. 148.   Use of Special Waste and Vent Fittings.

Fig. 148. - Use of Special Waste and Vent Fittings.

Fig. 149.   Venting of Water Closet with Wrought Iron Pipe.

Fig. 149. - Venting of Water-Closet with Wrought Iron Pipe.

Fig. 150.   Waste and Vent for Water Closets on Opposite Sides of Partition.

Fig. 150. - Waste and Vent for Water-Closets on Opposite Sides of Partition.

Fig. 151.   Use of Special Waste and Vent Fittings.

Fig. 151. - Use of Special Waste and Vent Fittings.

Fig. 154 illustrates the use of another vented fitting, E, for use in connection with a water-closet entering the end of a horizontal line of soil pipe. This fitting allows the entrance of the lead bend into the end and into its vent opening the water-closet vent may be connected to serve also as the main vent in many cases.

In Fig. 155 are illustrated a multiple waste and vent fitting, G, and a double revent fitting, F. The waste fitting is provided with two vent hubs, a waste opening for the water-closet and another for any other adjacent fixture. One of the vent hubs is to receive the vent for the water-closet, and the other the vent from the bath trap or other trap that is located below the floor.

The double revent fitting may be obtained in several modified patterns. For instance, another vent opening may be obtained at the top of the fitting, as shown in connection with the fitting H of Fig. 152.