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Our Homes And Their Adornments | by Almon C. Varney



Or, How to build, finish, furnish, and adorn a home, containing practical instructions for the building of homes, interior decoration, wood carving, soroll sawing, house painting, window hangings, screens, curtains, window gardening, incidental decorations, decorative-art needle-work, and economic landscape gardening; To which is added a household compendium of new, practical and valuable recipes, the whole being designed to make happy homes for happy people.

TitleOur Homes And Their Adornments
AuthorAlmon C. Varney
PublisherJ. C. Chilton & Co.
Year1882
Copyright1882, J. C. Chilton & Co.
AmazonOur Homes and Their Adornments
Our Homes And Their Adornments

By Almon C. Varney, Supervising Architect, etc., Detroit, Mich.,

Assisted By The Following Corps Of Special Contributors: John H. Young, Author Of "Our Deportment;" Etc,; Mrs. J. M. S. Holden, Author Of Interior Decoration; Chas. E. Bentley, Author Of Decorative Needlework; William Boydell, Author Of House Painting; John Swift, M. S., Late Professor Of Horticulture And Landscape Gardening, Maine Agricultural College.

Our Homes And Their Adornments 3
-Publishers' Note
IN submitting this work to the public, the Publishers think it not amiss to state that the contents have been carefully criticised and reviewed by competent and conscientious critics. To the author...
-Preface
THAT grand old Saxon word, HOME, has for ages hold a peerless place wherever the English lan-guage is spoken. And thus do we find it, under every zone, embalmed in song, cherished in the memory, and e...
-Part One. Planning. Erecting And Finishing Homes
When we mean to build, We first survey the plot, then draw the model; And when we see the figure of the house, Then must we rate the cost of construction: Which, if we find outweighs ability, What do ...
-Chapter I. Home
This word to most of us possesses deep significance. With what reverence do we look back to the home of our childhood, now embalmed in memory as our heart's dearest treasure ! Not a home, do we mean, ...
-Chapter II. How To Plan A House. Hints As To How To Proceed. Kinds Of Lumber To Use. Suggestions Worth Noting. Painting
IN the first place, we assume that a small cottage is to be built. The only one to apply to in the village is one of the two or three carpenters, who perhaps knows little of the real conveniences of l...
-Chapter III. Ornamentation. Appearance Of A House. Secret Of Attractive Buildings. The Place To Put Ornaments. Little Expense With Good Results. The Front Entrance. Portico. Cornice. Gable
THE exterior of a house built of wood can, at a small cost over what the difference would be for a plain one, be made attractive and even beautiful in outline and effect; it should, however, be borne ...
-Chapter IV. Buildings Of Wood. Their Economy. Kinds Of Wood To Use. Erecting The Building. Directions Therefor. Rendering Wooden Dwellings Warm. Back Plastering. How To Make A Wooden Dwelling Nearly Fire Proof
IN this country with its almost exhaustless resources of forests, including the finest assortment of woods for building found on any continent, the choicest kinds can be procured at reasonable figures...
-Sheathing Paper
But to return to our wood house. On the outside walls we would place one thickness of tarred building paper with the edges lapped, and run it under all finish, as corner boards, cornices, window and d...
-Clapboarding
The outer walls are usually covered with clapboards of pine, spruce, or, sometimes, basswood; in this locality, usually pine, and this is the best. These boards are made from six-inch strips, one inch...
-Chapter V. Durable Floors. A Better Plan For Floors Suggested. Open Joints And How To Prevent Them. Inside Finish. The Best Woods And How To Use Them. Prevention Of Swelling In-Lumber
PINE and spruce are the kinds used most for ordinary floors that are to be covered with carpeting. In the Middle and Western States, the flooring is matched and laid the first thing after the roof is ...
-Chapter VI. Stair Cases. Directions For Building. New Style Of Banisters. Rear Staircase. Hard Woods. Black-Walnut. How To Finish A House In Hard Wood. Veneering Hard Woods
THE staircase in the better class of houses should not be built, save the rough carriages, until after plastering is completed and dry, for the reasons before stated. The treads and risers for all g...
-Kinds Of Hard Wood Generally Used In Inside Finishing, And The Manner Of Using And Applying The Same
The following constitute the principal kinds of native hard woods used: Black-walnut, black or brown ash, butternut, white ash, white maple, white oak, red oak, red cherry, and sometimes birch and bee...
-Chapter VII. Something More Durable. Brick And Stone Houses. Their Cost. Veneer Brick And Stone Work. How To Prevent Brick Walls From Sweating. Stone Trimmings For Brick Houses
THERE is something in the word stone suggestive of stability; something that conveys the idea of endurance, solidity, and capability to stand the tempest, the wear of winter's ice and snow, and of sum...
-Veneer Brick And Stone Work
A very nice plan for building what may be called a half-stone or veneer-stone house, is as follows: On the completed foundation wall, back some five inches from the outer edge of the water-table, a fr...
-Chapter VIII. Valuable Suggestions And Rules. Methods Of Estimating Work And Material. How To Find The Amount Of Lumber Necessary To Erect A Given Building. Prices Of Labor
Excavating Cellars This is estimated by the cord of 128 cubic feet, by the square foot, or square yard. One to two dollars per cord is usually paid, according to hardness of the subsoil. Drains, - ...
-Measuring
A foot of lumber is a piece 12 inches square and 1 inch thick; a board 12 inches wide, 1 inch thick, and 10 feet long-contains 10 feet of lumber. To measure boards, - Multiply the length in feet by...
-Shingles
The number of shingles required for a roof is usually estimated at one thousand for every square, or one hundred square feet; hence, find the square feet in the roof and divide by one hundred, - resul...
-Chapter IX. House Painting. Its Philosophy. Best Time To Paint. Kinds Of Paint. Coloes. Mixing. Oils And Driers. Applying Paints. Priming. Second Coat. Finishing Coat. Brushes. General Suggestions
PAINT, composed of a mixture of oil and mineral, generally white lead, and applied to wood, iron, and even stone, acts as a preserver by shielding the surface from the action of rain and the atmospher...
-Mixing Colors
An endless variety of colors and tints can be produced by mixing. The following are only a few of them, - such as may be serviceable: - Stone Color White lead and a little black. Drab...
-Oils And Driers
Oils and turpentine should be pure and free from dust and other substances. To assist the process of drying paints, driers are used. Those most in use are sugar of lead, litharge, and white coppera...
-Applying Paints
Before applying paint, the surface to be painted should be carefully cleaned, and all projections of glue, putty, and whiting removed with knife and duster. Knots should be killed by the applicatio...
-Brushes
Brushes are made of all sizes, both round and flat, and are chiefly of bristles; the best for outside work are called wall-brushes, from three to five inches in width. For inside and small work the ro...
-General Suggestions On Outside Painting
Posts and pillars may be made to represent stone, by the following process: Procure a hand bellows, mash the nozzle down flat; into the nozzle, two inches from end, solder a small funnel, and before t...
-Inside Painting
Hard woods, as walnut, ash, and oak, look quite well in oil-finish, which is always popular, and preserves the wood quite well. The wood should be well filled with a mixture of gilder's whiting, or co...
-Oil And Shellac Finish
A very cheap and at the same time a popular method of finishing inside wood-work, is to apply one coat of boiled oil, and when dry, apply a finishing coat of varnish and oil mixed, or shellac varnish ...
-Graining
draining is a tedious but not too difficult business for a person of ordinary intelligence to attempt with a fair degree of success. In the outset, a clear idea of the wood to be represented, should b...
-The Tools
These are few and comparatively inexpensive, - besides the brushes necessary for applying the color, steel combs, coarse and fine, and soft, cotton rags. The brushes and combs can be found at any s...
-The Ground
This is the base of the graining, and should be as near the color of the wood as possible, care being taken not to get it too dark. The ground for maple, ash, and oak is about the same, a light cre...
-The Graining Color
or the color which shows the veins and growth of the wood, is the most important, as the delicate lines of the wood are to be traced in it. When the ground has been laid on and is quite dry, this grai...
-Lathing And Plastering
In wooden buildings the walls should be made even, so that when the plastering is put on, the wall will present no ins and outs. This may be effected by trimming all the timbers down to an equal wid...
-Carpenter Work
In most parts of the country it is usually the custom to let the contract for building wooden houses to the carpenter, who is frequently a contractor, and sub-contracts the erection to other parties. ...
-Framing Timbers
These may be of any lasting wood, and hence the kind most readily obtained will be used; spruce, pine, whitewood, poplar, or oak, is suitable. In many localities it is customary to use sills containin...
-Tin Roofs And Trimmings
Away from the salt atmosphere of the coast, tin makes a good roof, and will last, if good and well put on, for a long time. Owing to the fact, however, that there are many inferior brands used, these ...
-Crestings And Finials
The roofs of many buildings can be much improved in appearance by the use of some one of the many neat designs of ornamental iron crestings, to be supplied by hardware dealers or manufacturers. Finial...
-Doors And Windows
All styles of doors and windows are now ready-made and are for sale everywhere, so it is only necessary to specify in the contract with the builder the kind and style wanted, unless special designs ar...
-Blinds And Shutters
These are very desirable; but there are difficulties in the way of the use of inside blinds, as they may interfere with the window drapery. They should be arranged to fold on hinges, fourfold being mo...
-Inside Finish - Wood-Work
Here is the department where good taste will assert itself. The wood finish of the different rooms should receive due consideration in the plans and specifications, and definite contract of what is to...
-Main Rooms
These should have molded architraves or casings on doors and windows, of neat design, resting on plinth blocks at the floor. Back plaster under the windows, and cover this with a neat sunk panel, exte...
-Kitchen
This room should be wainscoted on all sides three feet high, with matched and beaded sheathing, not to exceed four inches in width, applied vertically, and the top finished with a neat molded cap. ...
-The Mantel
In the Eastern States, mantels of hard wood are now quite popular, being gotten up very elaborately. Cheaper ones can be made of less costly woods, and when finished properly they look quite well. ...
-Plumbing And Fitting
There is, perhaps, no department of house finishing upon which the health and comfort of the inmates depends more than plumbing and fitting, and probably nothing is more annoying and dangerous than a ...
-Glazing
Double thick glass, either French or American, is more durable, and costs less, proportionately, than glass of single thickness. In main rooms, at least, the custom now is to make the glass large, ...
-Hardware
The front door should have a good, brass face, or other style lock and night latch combined and the knobs of the door and door bell and the escutcheon, should be of genuine bronze or other durable mat...
-Storm Doors
In many parts of the country the use of storm doors is unnecessary, as in the South, but in all of the Northern States they should be put up on houses not provided with vestibule entrances, on the app...
-Chapter XI. Heating And Ventilation. Open Fire-Places. Grates And Furnaces. Steam Heating. How To Ventilate. Impure Air. Nature's Disinfectants
THE old fire-place, with its cheery blaze and glowing back log, and coals that assume ten thousand fantastic shapes and pictures, all giving out an abundance of heat, cannot be outdone by any inventio...
-Grates And Furnaces
The nearest approach to the open fire-place is the grate for burning soft coal, and when arranged with its ash pit as before described in this work, is very easy to keep clean. This method of heating ...
-Ventilation
The importance of pure air in our dwellings cannot be overestimated; inventions without number have been made and offered the public, and treatises without end have been written, each of which, if we ...
-Chapter XII. Situation And Surroundings. Selecting A Healthy Site. How To Secure Good Drainage. Pure Water. Danger From Stagnant Pools. How A House Should Front. Sunshine. Its Value. Shade Trees
OTHER things being equal, high ground is always preferable for a building site; but many things must be taken into consideration in the location. Old water-courses, low, swampy grounds, and dense fore...
-Exposure Of A House
. The exposure of a house, or the direction it fronts, and the relative location of its principal rooms, has much to do with the comfort of its inmates. The greatest consideration is the admission ...
-Chapter XIII. The Primitive House. Our Noble Ancestors. Modern Residences. How To Build A House And Make Additions To It. A Simple Cottage
MANY of our readers are no doubt familiar with the old-fashioned house built by our forefathers - the log cabin. Our engraver has succeeded very well in producing a good illustration, one with its pri...
-Design I. - A Prairie House
In the accompanying engravings we have, perhaps, given a plan that may seem advisable for some of our prairie readers to follow. There is hardly any one settling on the prairies who could not produ...
-Chapter XIV. An Attractive Cottage Home For People With Small Means. - How Constructed. - The Cost. - How To Paint It. Design II
WE give in Figs. 8 and 9 illustrations of the arrangement of the rooms on first floor, and perspective view of front and principal side of an attractive little cottage, neat and well proportioned, sim...
-Chapter XV. A Neat, Symmetrical Story-And-A-Half House At Moderate Cost. - Description Of Its Arrangement. - Its Advantages Over A One-Story House. - Some Novel Features. Design III
WE present in Figs. 10 and 11, first and second floor plans, with front elevation shown in Fig. 12, of a story-and-a-half cottage. Two of these have recently been completed for the author, for renting...
-Design IV. - Story-And-A-Half House
We follow here with another design of a story-and-a-half house, the first floor plan being seen in Fig. 13, and a fine perspective of the front and one side in Fig. 14, showing the house and lawn as t...
-Chapter XVI. Story-And-A-Half Houses Continued. - A House That Will Admit Sunlight To Every Room. - Appearance Made Subordinate To Arrangement Of Rooms. - An Excellent Floor Plan. Design V
WE give in Fig. 15 first-floor plan, and in Fig. 16 perspective view of a fine and commodious story -and-a-half house well adapted for a country or suburban residence. It is well adapted for a corner ...
-Chapter XVII. A Rural Cottage Home. - A Plan That Combines Convenience And Beauty. - Simple Adornments That Add To Comfort. - Perspective View Of A Picturesque Gothic House. Design VI
IN the plan, Fig. 17, and the perspective, Fig. 18, we present what may be appropriately termed a RURAL COTTAGE HOME. The first floor, Fig. 17, shows a very complete arrangement of rooms, consisting o...
-Design VII
In our illustration, Fig. 19, we give a perspective view of a picturesque and most admirable exterior of a modern gothic-roofed story-and-a-half house. This is particularly adapted for a country house...
-Chapter XVIII. More Durable Material. - A Solid Gothic House. - Style, Not New But Popular. - Description Of The Plans. - Cost Of Erection. - Design IX. - Extensive Farm Residence And Barn. Design VIII
WE now pass to a house composed of material more durable and costly. Figs. 20, 21, and 22 present a design of a building intended for a farm-house, to be built of stone. The leading ideas in the arran...
-Design IX
We present in Fig. 23 first-floor plan, and in Fig. 24 perspective view, of an extensive farm residence and barn, that we think are very complete in their appointments throughout. Scattered far and...
-Chapter XIX. An Elegant Brick Residence. - Comfort And Beauty Combined. - Description Of Plan, Materials, And Construction. - Design XL - A Modern Villa. Design X
OUR illustrations, Figs. 25 and 26 are the first floor and perspective of an elegant brick residence, designed by the author and erected in Detroit at a cost of five thousand dollars. It illustrates i...
-Chapter XX. How To Build A Summer Cottage. - Cheap, But Attractive Houses In The Hot Season. - How To Build A Rustic Arbor. - A Few Suggestions On Beautifying The Surroundings With Little Expense
AS the warm season approaches, many persons, especially those in cities, are anxious to retire to some spot where they may escape the heat. Many go to the fashionable watering places, some to private ...
-How To Construct A Rustic House
Where there is anything like spacious grounds around a house, that can be used for a lawn, nothing adds more to the attractiveness of the out-door scenery than a cosey, rustic retreat, covered with cl...
-Chapter XXI. Alterations And Additions. - Old Houses Made New. - Caution. - Improving Roofs And Gables. - Remodeling Windows
WHEN any alterations or additions are contemplated, they should receive the most careful consideration before the plans are put into execution; indeed, in many cases more study and good judgment are o...
-Bay-Windows
Bay-windows can usually be added to a house with good effect and an increase of comfort to the inmates. The wall should be cut out the height and breadth desired, and the bay-window built out from ...
-New Roofs, Gables, Etc
If roofs need relaying, where the building is good, slate roofs may be put on over the old shingles to good advantage, using longer nails than usual to secure the slate. If the building is old-fash...
-Improving Windows
The appearance of many good, substantial houses, especially in the country, is positively ruined by the low, square, unsightly, small-light windows. This can be remedied at a very light expense by tea...
-Chapter XXII. Outhouses. - Some Practical Suggestions. - How To Have Ice All The Summer. - An Ice-House Preserv-Atory. - Plan For A Cheap But Excellent Farm And Carriage Barn
IT frequently happens that the outhouses of a farm, such as the ice-house, hennery, etc., receive but little attention. Some farmers utterly neglect walks or stepping-stones to the barns and other ...
-Ice-House
An ice-house properly made will last a long time with but little attention; and in the country where ice is not supplied, there is no reason why the milk-house, meat preservatory, and ice-house should...
-Farm And Carriage Barn
There are many farmers owning farms of from fifty to eighty acres, who often feel the need of a carriage barn, yet do not feel able to build one in addition to their other farm buildings. To such it i...
-Part Two. Home Employments For Young And Old
THE following chapters are designed to suggest employments that will beautify the home, and in many iir-stances add to the revenue of the family, and above all furnish such attractive work as will kee...
-Chapter I. A Manual Of Fret Sawing. - Practical Lessons With Illustrations. - Finishing Up The Work. - Use Of Saws. - Sawing Metals. - Useful Articles. - Saws And Their Prices
THE amateur is frequently in too great haste to make a bracket, and does not give sufficient time for practice; especially is this the case with the younger ones, and for this reason many get discou...
-How To Use The Scroll-Saw
Amateurs should first learn to operate treadle, so they can run machine and talk at same time; even write and run saw. Having accomplished this, take a piece of cigar box or other thin board, make str...
-How To Use The Scroll-Saw. Part 2
Smoothing Off Work Take a small, half-round file, and file the corners true, and straighten all edges. Take sand-paper and rub the bracket carefully. Under edges will be found ragged, but sand-pape...
-How To Use The Scroll-Saw. Part 3
Overlaying When the amateur has become master of his saw, so that he can saw delicate and intricate work, he should do overlaid work, as this is very neat and a change from other work. Ordinary fla...
-Saws, Lathes, Prices, Etc
Some of the higher priced scroll sawing machines, have a turning lathe attachment, and are equipped with a complement of chisels and gouges, by means of which many useful and ornamental articles can b...
-Hand Scroll Or Fret Saws
Persons who do not wish to go to the expense of a scroll or fret sawing machine, but who desire to do ornamental work in the making of brackets, or picture frames, or inlaying work, can procure small ...
-Chapter II. The Art Of Wood Carving. - Its Origin And History. The Tools And Their Uses. - Ornaments That May Be Made. - How Amateurs May Learn The Art. - Directions For First Attempts. Wood Carving
Within the past few years much attention has been given to carving on wood as a pastime and useful recreation. This is probably the oldest branch of Art within the knowledge of man. Apparently, the fi...
-The Use Of Tools
The first lesson of the amateur is to learn the use of the three principal tools, - the flat chisel, gouge, and veining tool. (See tools 2, 3, and 4, next figure.) For this lesson take a block of w...
-Designs For Wood Carving
It is necessary, in order to carry on wood carving, to procure a strong table of deal or other wood, the stronger and heavier it is the better, as nails must be driven into it, and holes bored. It mus...
-Chapter III. Landscape Gardening. General Rules And Observations Applicable To The Improvement Of Small Lots From One-Sixteenth To One-Half Acre In Area. - Errors Of Common Occurrence. - Style Of Gardening. - Exposure And Location. - Grading And Terracing
BEFORE entering upon details as to the best methods of improvement, and as a fruitful source of awakening attention to the subject, it has seemed best to enumerate some of the more noticeable faults, ...
-Simplicity And Neatness
Are the two main things to be sought in these little places, and since they can only be considered as one part or feature of larger places, no attempt to embody everything that could be attained upon ...
-Style Of Gardening Used
In general, only the formal or geometric style can be applied within narrow limits. There is no room to make curved walks and flowing outlines, rockeries, cascades, lakes, and other things that be...
-The Exposure Or Location
Of course we do not expect all can obtain the most desirable places, and many of the readers have already purchased and perhaps built; but it is proper to speak of these features, and then each can ap...
-The Style Of House To Be Built
Although not properly belonging to this subject, needs great care in its selection. Nothing in ornamental gardening can ever atone for a poorly designed house. So, if possible, consult your architect ...
-Means Of Improvement
The first thing to be done upon a new place is to secure perfect drainage for cellar and surplus waters, and the next is to mark out your necessary Roads And Walks But as we have occasion to...
-Formation Of Lawns
As lawns constitute the chief charm in all small grounds, great care should be taken in their formation. Dig the ground deep and apply plenty of fertilizers in the form of rich loam, not clay alone un...
-Special Features. Drives And Walks
As we have before stated, the number, direction, and location of drives and walks are matters of the utmost importance, as these not only form convenient means of ingress and egress to the premises, a...
-Making Walks And Drives
This should be done in as permanent a manner as your means will admit. There are many methods, but the same general principles govern them all; viz., thorough drainage underneath, and a hard, compact ...
-Tree Planting
All American gardeners agree, we think, in placing November and December (if open) at the head of all other months for the planting of deciduous ornamental trees. To be sure, small trees and shrubs wi...
-Time For Removing Trees Thus Prepared
Now, if you have extensive planting to be done, and the above preparations are completed, you can wait until the ground is thoroughly frozen in winter, when the removal should be done, taking care not...
-Kinds Of Treks
Of the shaped trees, shrubs, and flowers to be chosen to accompany the various styles of architecture, we have already spoken several times, either by way of criticism or direct instruction; and since...
-Fences
The subject of fences, of which we promised to speak, will be difficult, if we attempt to please every one, judging by the numerous styles now displayed in front of residences in cities. Tongue cannot...
-Part Three. How To Make Homes Beautiful
EVERY man's proper mansion-house and home, being the theater of his hospitality, the seate of self-fruition, the comfortablest part of his own life, the noblest of his Sonne's inheritance,...
-Chapter I. Interior Decoration. - General Considerations. - Objects Aimed At. And Extent Of Decoration. - How To Beautify Walls And Ceilings. - Wall-Papers. - How To Select The Best
BY interior decoration is meant the addition to the interior of our homes, as finished by the builder, of such features as will add to the attractiveness of the rooms and lend an enchantment not felt ...
-Walls And Ceilings
Next to the adornment of our own persons, the background or foundation of the rooms which we inhabit is of greatest interest to us. Our circumstances determine whether these backgrounds, which resolve...
-Wall-Papers
Like all transient fashions of dress or ornament, where the material is comparatively cheap, the patterns or colors of wall-paper are constantly changing, and new patterns and fashions are brought out...
-Choice Of Wall Papers
In the choice of papers, a person must look to the adaptation of tints for different rooms, choosing bright or even brilliant shades for the dining-room, bronze shades with slight points of gold for a...
-Chapter II. Hints On The Choice Of Papers. - What Shades To Select. - Harmony Of Colors. - Selecting Paper For Different Rooms. - The Dado
WE present herewith a few hints to guide our readers in the choice of wall and ceiling papers for different rooms. In the first place, it must be borne in mind that the paper must not be the most orna...
-Ceilings
From the nature of ceilings, the manner of finishing them is susceptible of a wider range than the side wall affords, however ornamental the latter may be. The reason of this is apparent when we consi...
-The Dado
The use of the dado in the sitting-room, dining-room, and library, answers to some extent the purpose of wainscoting. It forms a lower bordering to the paper, and may extend to any height desirable, f...
-Chapter III. How To Hang Wall-Papers. - Simple Instructions For Everybody. - Sizing The Walls. - Amount Of Paper In A Roll. - How To Cut And Match The Paper. - Paste For Wall-Paper
IT is usually best to leave the walls or ceilings for at least a year before papering them, for the reason that it requires that time for the plaster to become so thoroughly dry as to hold the paper. ...
-How To Make Paste
Paste is best made with old flour, water, and a little size or glue; alum is also added, to make it spread more freely without losing any of its tenacity or sticking quality. It should be brought to a...
-Chapter IV. Decorative Art Needle-Work. Recent Improvements In Needle-Work. - Usefulness Now A Prominent Feature. - List And Description Of Materials. - Prices. - Bead Work
NO department of home ornamentation offers a wider range than Needle-Work. Each year the desire to increase the attractions of our homes, becomes greater. In many large cities societies of Decorative ...
-Chapter V. Embroidery Stitches. - Descriptions Of The Best Stem Stitch. - Blanket Stitch. - Chain Stitches. - Herring-Bone, Button Hole, And Satin Stitch. - Kensington Outline. - Janina. - Blanket. - Design For Borders And Centers. - The New Plush Stitch
THE best authorities agree that for embroidery the simpler and fewer the stitches the better. Of course, the number and character of the stitches depend upon the design to be made, some designs being ...
-Embroidery Stitches. - Descriptions Of The Best Stem Stitch. - Blanket Stitch. - Chain Stitches. - Herring-Bone, Button Hole, And Satin Stitch. - Kensington Outline. - Janina. - Blanket. - Design For Borders And Centers. - The New Plush Stitch. Continued
Design For A Border The design for a corner will assist in understanding this. The rings and the diamonds are made of three threads of different shades, while the angles are concealed by gold-color...
-A New Stitch
The most decided novelty in art embroidery, and one that has a permanent value, is the introduction of the plush stitch. By its use sumac, cockscomb, golden rod, love lies bleeding, princess feather, ...
-Designs And Stamping
The question of making original designs for embroidery, while of importance, is too difficult for amateurs. Those who are naturally ingenious will be able to construct their own designs, or modify tho...
-Embroidery Patterns
The two borders, Figs. 42 and 43, will be suitable for ornamenting children's frocks, aprons, etc. They may be worked with silk, crewel, or cotton, according to the material. Holland or alpaca aprons ...
-Embroidered Pincushion
The ornamental pincushion, Fig. 44, is made on a circular cushion six inches in diameter, the bottom being of thick pasteboard, the sides of strong calico, and the stuffing of bran. Cover the bottom w...
-Silk Counterpanes
Fig. 45 shows a quilted counterpane with the cover trimmed with neat embroidery. The inside may be of any desired color of silk, quilted in a variety of designs. Fig. 46 is another style of cover, ...
-Tatted Doyley
The tatted doyley shown in our illustration, Fig. 47, is so distinctly marked that it does not need an explanation to those skilled in the use of the shuttle. The tatting, which is composed of double ...
-Linen Embroidery
Fig. 48 is an illustration of a tidy made of the new style of embroidery on linen crash. Old ladies whose sight is failing will find this very agreeable work. The stars should be worked in two shades ...
-Elegant Rocking-Chair Cover
The very elegant rocking-chair shown in Fig. 49 is upholstered in hair and covered with silk plush of the peculiar shade called drakesneck, a sort of bluish-green of a deep, rich shade, which forms ...
-A Pretty Work-Apron
A pretty little work-apron is shown in Fig. 50, made of a yard of pongee silk, 18 inches wide, embroidered in etching silk, the design being that old conundrum of How doth the little busy bee Improve...
-Hair Receiver
Fig. 51 is a novel and pretty hair and hair-pin receiver, made of No. 12 satin ribbon of two colors interwoven in a sort of checker-board pattern, as seen in the engraving. A piece of card-board in th...
-Glass Mirrors
An elegant addition to almost any room is one of the beveled glass mirrors shown in Figs. 52 and 53. The frame is of pine or whitewood and covered with silk plush embroidered with arasene or with silk...
-A New Style Splasher
Splashers are not very new, but the one shown in Fig. 54 is so far superior to the ordinary splasher as to merit description. It is made expressly for the purpose, being woven with a band of open-work...
-A News Rack
Fig. 55 is a news rack in bead embroidery. The frame is of gilded wood, and the foundation for the embroidery is of deep maroon silk plush. The design of maple leaves is embroidered in metal beads in ...
-Three-Cornered Table
Fig. 56 represents a three-cornered table, the frame of which is of gilded wood. The top is covered with shaded blue plush, ornamented with a spray of wild clematis, embroidered in beads, the flowers ...
-Applique Piano Scarf
Fig. 57 is a piano scarf for an upright in the new Mosaic embroidery, or plush applique work. The ground is of lava gray plush and the design of autumn leaves is cut out of a variety of shades of plus...
-Portieres
A beautiful room is far more beautiful when there is no square means of egress suggesting the unpleasant idea of departure. Where, however, the means are limited, one pretty portiere covering, or repl...
-Old Blue Blankets
Another friend had a bare, cheap, new cottage. Money was not abundant. Old grandmother-woven indigo-blue woolen blankets were. She began sewing in little figures, - stars, crescents, and odd stitches ...
-Silk Rag Carpet
Portieres, as well as curtains, have been made of silk rag carpets, - yes, nothing more or less! Old silks, even soiled and faded, are cut in strips as for carpet, and either woven with cotton warp, o...
-Ingrain Carpet
Another portiere we have seen is a great and lasting success, for it is of solid wool which in fifty years will still be firm of texture and pleasing in color. It is fine ingrain carpet of beautiful o...
-The Dove Portiere
Still another portiere. The idea came from nature's enchanting harmony in an ordinary pigeon's colors, - one of the dove-tinted, blue-green sort. The material to harmonize with a light and smiling d...
-Velveteen
Velveteen is a desirable material for either portieres or curtains. Plush is the richest material in use. In one drawing-room we have seen the wide doors from the hall and library rilled by portieres ...
-Smyrna Blankets, Prayer Carpets
Very odd portieres are brought home by travelers from the East, and imported in great quantities. Stripes of odd woolen stuff, loosely caught together by coarse woolen cord, and embroidered evidently ...
-Curtains
In furnishing throughout, the curtains and wall-paper should be bought first, and the carpet selected as a quiet accessory. In no case should the floor be very light or brilliant. ...
-Prices Of Material
The price of material does not vary greatly from time to time. The subjoined prices will be found nearly correct for a loner time to come: - Cotton momie-cloth, 50 in. wide, in all colors, per yd.....
-Scarfs And Book-Case Curtains
In a friend's house we have seen an old and awkward book-case converted into two pretty modern ones by sawing the high one in two, and adding, in one case a cornice, in the other a base. Some gold-col...
-Chapter IX. Screens. - How To Make Them. - Materials. - How To Use Screens To Advantage. - How To Make Screens. - How To Ebonize Wood. - Painted Screens. - How To Use Discarded Material To Advantage In Covering Panels Of Screens. - Embroidered Screens. - How To Make The Frames
NOTHING breaks up the stiffness of a room, and nothing serves so many odd purposes, as a folding screen. A lady, assisted by a carpenter, constructed a large one of four panels to make a dressing-room...
-The Covering And Decoration Of Screens
Perhaps the handsomest screens are those which are painted by hand. We own to a prejudice against painting on silk or satin. Fine painting should be on a more enduring material, and poor painting shou...
-Chapter X. Embroidered Screens. - Japanese Piece-Work. - A Patriotic Screen. - New Uses Of Old Material. - A Queer Use For An Old Clothes-Horse. - Lambrequins. - Tables. - Cabinets. - Odds And Ends. - Use Up The Pieces
THE variety here is immense. All rich stuffs, plush, satin, silk, and embossed materials, are handsome and may be heavily embroidered, or some slight spray worked upon them. Sail-cloth makes an exe...
-Embroidered Screens. Part 2
Lamp Screens Very pretty lamp screens are made in the same way, and mounted upon smaller tripod stands. Fig. 60. Odd Fan Screens The frame is made of two uprights of bamboo fishi...
-Embroidered Screens. Part 3
A Friendship Cushion Is divided by black lines into squares a few inches across, and tilled in to suit the taste of each worker. Japanese quilt, described under chapter on screens, makes a hands...
-Chapter. XI. Some New Designs In Embroidery. - Lambrequin And Curtains. - Materials To Use, And How To Construct. - An Elegant Sofa Pillow. - A New Applique Design. - Lace Lambrequin
Lambrequin And Curtains The illustration is so plain that most ladies can easily construct the set with but few suffffestions. The materials may be readily suited to the means and taste of the owne...
-Chapter XII. Furnishings. - The Hall. - Its Impression Upon Visitors. - The Parlor. - Dining-Room. - How To Furnish Them At Reasonable Cost. - Ebonizing Wood. - Home-Made Mantels, Rugs, Carpets, Etc
THE suggestions made in the following pages, are offered as such. No authority, however high, can fix rules which will be followed by those whose originality leads them to decorate and furnish their h...
-Chapter XIII. Bed-Rooms. - How To Make Them Cheerful, Comfortable, And Healthful. - Bed-Room Furniture. - Cheap But Useful Furniture. - How To Make A Bed-Room Table. - Wash-Stand With Drapery
IN the furnishing of bed-rooms, the individuality of the housewife asserts itself very strongly. When it is remembered that from one-fourth to one-third of our time is spent in our bedrooms, no arg...
-Bed-Rooms. - How To Make Them Cheerful, Comfortable, And Healthful. - Bed-Room Furniture. - Cheap But Useful Furniture. - How To Make A Bed-Room Table. - Wash-Stand With Drapery. Continued
Drapery For Toilet-Stand On the opposite page we give an illustration showing how the commonest and plainest bed-room may be rendered beautiful and attractive by the aid of a little taste and cheap...
-Part Four. The Care Culture, And Propagation Of Flowers
GOD might have bade the earth bring forth Enough for great and small; The oak-tree and the cherry-tree, Without a flower at all. We might have had enough, enough For every want of ours, For l...
-Chapter I. The Culture Of Flowers. - How To Have Thriving Plants And Abundance Of Flowers. - Useful Suggestions. - How To Construct And Manage Hotbeds And Flower-Beds
THERE is no employment which tends to the development of the better nature of men and women more than the culture of flowers. However humble the circumstances, the possession and culture of at least a...
-Sowing The Seed
Nine-tenths of the failures in flower culture come from improper treatment of the seeds and young plants; and we urge every one who makes an attempt to train and care for flowers, to study our descrip...
-Classification Of Flowers
All flowers, raised from seed, are usually known as Annuals, Biennials, or Perennials. Annuals are those plants which flower or ripen their seeds or fruits the season they are sown, and then perish...
-Hot-Bed Culture
Many varieties of flowers can scarcely be brought to perfection without the assistance of hot-bed or cold-frame, and much care is often necessary in transplanting, sheltering, and pricking out the you...
-The Flower Garden
Where it is possible, flower gardens should be so located as to be shaded from the afternoon sun. Elaborate beds are to be avoided unless one has abundant time to devote to their care. An endless vari...
-Chapter II. Description Of Varieties. - A List Of Bulbs, With Methods Of Treatment. - Climbers. - Annuals. - Varieties Suitable For All Purposes
THE following descriptions will be of great value in the selection of flowers. The list includes all kinds, - Climbers, Bulbs, Annuals, and Hardy Shrubs. ...
-Bulb Flowers
Tuberose Of all the summer flowering, bulbous plants, we think the tuberose the most desirable. The flowers are waxy white, double, and so fragrant as to perfume the whole atmosphere for some dista...
-Climbers
Clematis Well known and universally admired climbers, some of the varieties being remarkable for the beauty and fragrance of their blossoms. Fine for covering arbors, verandas, etc., as they cling ...
-Annuals And Perennials
Aster No family of plants bears such distinct marks of progress as the aster, and none are more eagerly sought. An almost endless variety, always reliable, it is not strange that they should become...
-Annuals And Perennials. Part 2
Candytuft Universally known and cultivated, and considered indispensable for cutting. All the varieties look best in beds or masses. Seed sown in the autumn produces flowers early in spring; when s...
-Annuals And Perennials. Part 3
Oleander This well-known shrub, originally a native of India, is of easy culture, and flowers freely the greater part of the year. In warm, moist climates, it requires no protection, and attains th...
-Annuals And Perennials. Part 4
Phlox Drummondii Remarkable for the brilliancy and abundance of their large, terminal flowers, completely hiding the foliage. The blossoms are of many colors, from pure white to deepest purple, eye...
-Annuals And Perennials. Part 5
Petunia Petunias are unsurpassed, if indeed equaled, for massing in beds. Their richness of color, duration of bloom, and easy culture will always render them popular. They will do well sown in ope...
-Chapter III. Window Gardening. - How To Have Flowers All Winter. - Best Varieties For Winter Use. - How To Care For The Flowers. - Their Arrangement In The Window
IN addition to what has been said in the chapters on the culture of flowers, it is thought proper to add a few hints upon the subject of window gardening. There are but few plants that will not thr...
-Chapter IV. Preserving Natural Flowers. - An Art Worth Knowing. - How To Keep Natural Flowers For A Long Time. - Preserving By The Sand Process. - The Sulphur Process. - Preserving Bridal And Funeral Flowers. - An Elegant Art. - Arrangement Of Flowers
THE art of preserving flowers in their natural state has long been known, but the process seems to have been forgotten until the increasing demand for bouquets brought it to the minds of the people of...
-Chapter I. Brush And Pigment. - Painting In Oil And Water Colors. - Full Instructions For Both. - Panel Painting. - Painting Plaques And Vases. - An Elegant Art. - Beautifying The Home. - A New Ware For Painting. - Oil Colors On Silk, Satin, And Plush. - Water Colors. - Bowl Painting
OF late years there has been a very great advance in the use of oil and water colors in interior decorations. Many ladies have turned their attention to painting panels, screens, and plaques for adorn...
-Panel Painting
Panels of doors, or simply oblong wall-panels of well seasoned wood, are now painted in oil-colors. The oblong panels look well hung upon the wall, or set upon an easel, a shelf, a cabinet, or the man...
-Painting Plaques
The decoration of plaques and vases is a very elegant and popular employment for ladies, and is rapidly growing in favor. Two methods are used, one in which the plaques are painted and the painting is...
-Imitation Barbatin Or Lamoges Ware
A new material for oil-colors has recently made its appearance. It is clay modeled into the forms of vases and jars, upon the surface of which flowers are molded in full relief. This ware is intended,...
-Silk, Satin, And Plush
These three materials are sometimes painted on for ban- ners, panels, and screens. The materials for use are the same as have been spoken of, with the addition of ox gall spread over the designs, on s...
-Chapter II. Crystal Ambrotypes, Or Photo-Enamel. - How To Paint Photographs. - Explicit Directions For The Painting. - Materials And Their Use. - Decalcomania, Or The Art Of Transferring Pictures. - Transferring Pictures To Wood, Stone, Glass, Silk, Satin, Etc. - Easy And Inexpensive Ways Of Decorating
DOUBTLESS many have admired the handsomely colored photographs exhibited throughout the country by agents who claim to know the secret of the art, and the method of teaching it. The fact is, it is no ...
-Fish Scale Embroidery
- It remained for some ingenious admirer of the denizens of the deep to invent some plan by which the scales of fishes might be utilized for decorative pur-poses. The scales of any fish will answer, b...
-Bags, Sachets, Etc
Reticules and bags are now very popular, and any lady having a desire to possess one may make it without great expense. Satin is the favorite, but plush and other materials are quite as appropriate. ...
-Cover For A Baby's Crib
There was recently shown at the rooms of the Society of Decorative Art in New York, a crib cover which attracted great attention. The material was worked with silk, on white linen, the design, in outl...
-Oval Picture Frames
Very handsome frames for card and cabinet photographs and other small pictures, may be made in the following manner: Take a piece of pine board one-fourth of an inch thick, the size you wish your fram...
-Imitation Coral Hanging Baskets
Take old hoops with the covering on; bend and tie in any shape desired; tie with wrapping-twine, with ends of the twine left one-fourth of an inch long; cover the basket when formed with knots or ties...
-Baskets For Waste Paper, Etc
Take two tapering baskets, such as peaches are shipped in, and fasten them together, bottom to bottom, making an hour-glass shape. Line the inside of each basket, but use different colors, say one pin...
-An Elegant Table
An ordinary kitchen table can, with little trouble, be transformed into quite an elegant piece of furniture for the library. The top and legs are smoothly covered with green cloth; the seam on the leg...
-How To Make Rugs. Filled Rugs
Here is a plan for making very handsome and serviceable rugs at little expense. The foundation is some strong but open cloth; as crash, drugget, or coffee sacks. The foundation should bo stretched upo...
-How To Conceal Flower-Pots
The ordinary Japanese fan has found still another use; viz., to conceal the unsightly sides of common flower-pots. Remove the rivet which holds the fan together, and in its place insert a wire long en...
-Pretty Lamp-Shades
The pretty lamp-shades for sale in the stores, can be made at home just as well, and with much less expense. Procure a sheet of tissue-paper of the desired color, and cut it perfect square. Fold two o...
-Chapter IV. Encaustic Tiles. - Their Durability. - How To Use Them. - Paving Hearths. - Cost. - Mantels. - How To Get Them. - Cabinets. - Home Decoration Of Tiles
NO other like material presents better opportunities for gratifying the desire to embellish and beautify our homes, than the use of Encaustic Tiles. They are made of powdered clay from which all forei...
-Hearths And Pavements
A hearth or hall can be paved with tales at a very reasonable cost, about fifty cents per square foot, and when once done, the whole always presents a neat and cosey appearance, and is easily cleaned ...
-Mantels. Cabinets, Etc
The panel- at sides and top of mantel are frequently ornamented with tiles. A very attractive mantel of ebon-ized or other wood can be decorated in this way. and the whole cost is much less than for t...
-Lincrusta-Walton
Lincrusta-Walton is the name of a new material for wall and ceiling decorations, recently introduced from England. It is intended to supply the place of wall-paper, fresco, or plaster, and at the same...
-Chapter V. Dyeing And Bleaching. Dyeing Cotton. - How To Treat The Fabrics. - Directions For All Leading Colors. - Dyeing Woolens Aniline Colors. - Coloring Straw Hats. - How To Make Mordants
EVERY frugal housewife has frequent occasion to resort to Dyeing to restore faded but slightly worn garments and other articles of dress to the original or some other color, as well as to color yarns....
-Dyeing Cotton
The following recipes for dyeing cotton apply to 10 pounds weight of cotton yarn or cloth, which is found to be the smallest quantity capable of being well dyed at one time. The proportions of each in...
-Woolen Dyeing
A pound of wool woven into common merino measures about 3 yards, common moreen about 2 yards. 1. Jet Black For 50 lbs. Prepare with 2 1/4 lbs. chrome, boil half an hour, and wash in two waters. ...
-Aniline Colors
No mordant is necessary for these colors when used on silk or woolen; the proper quantity of clear liquid is mixed with slightly warm water, the scum skimmed off, and the goods entered and worked unti...
-Dyeing Wool
Magenta, - Crimson. Violet Dye in a neutral bath (a neutral bath is a bath of clean water only). Start at hand heat, and raise the temperature of the bath to below boiling point, but do not boil. T...
-Useful Suggestions for Dyers
In accommodation to the requirements of dyers, many of the recipes describe dyes for large quantities of goods; but to make them equally adapted for the use of private families, they are usually given...
-Bleaching
How To Bleach Sponge Soak it well in dilute muriatic acid for twelve hours. Wash well with water to remove the lime, then immerse in a solution of hyposulphate of soda, to which dilute muriatic aci...
-Part Six. Household Compendium New And Valuable Recipes
THIS department embraces a list of Recipes, many of which have appeared in no other work, and the whole list may be relied upon as practical, easy, and effective. The following classification of...
-The Househoid Compendium. Hints On Health. A Disinfectant For Sick-Rooms
Let a reliable apothecary put up for you in a small bottle four ounces of ninety per cent alcohol and one ounce of thirty-six per cent nitric acid. One-half of this mixture will disinfect a room fifty...
-The Best Deodorizer
Use bromo-chloralum in the proportion of one to eight table-spoonfuls of soft water; dip cloths in this solution and hang in the rooms; it will purify sickrooms of any foul smells. The surface of anyt...
-Lime-Water
One of the most useful agents of household economy, if rightly understood, is lime-water. Its mode of preparation is as follows: Put a stone of fresh un- slacked lime about the size of a half-peck mea...
-Hints On Home Decoration
Preserving Autumn Leaves These may be easily preserved and retain their natural tints, or nearly so, by either of the following methods: - As they are gathered they may be laid between the leave...
-Skeletonizing Leaves
For the leaves, maple ones and those that have a pretty shape are the best: To one pound of soda-ash add two quarts of soft water. After it is all dissolved by boiling, add as many leaves as your dish...
-For Crystallizing Grass
Ladies who admire beautiful bouquets of grasses, will appreciate the following recipe: - Take one and one-half pounds of rock alum, pour on three pints of boiling water; when quite cool put into a ...
-How To Imitate Ground-Glass Windows
Put a piece of putty weighing about six ounces into a muslin bag so as to form a smooth surface. After thoroughly cleaning the glass, pat it all over with the bag of putty, which being forced out thro...
-Toilet Receipes
The publishers have been at no small expense in securing recipes for this work, and can assure their patrons that they have all been tested by experience. The toilet recipes have been furnished by ...
-The Hair
Hair Gloss Glycerine 6 oz., cologne 2 oz. Mix and use to moisten the hair. Hair Oil Castor oil 6 oz., cologne spirits or alcohol 2 oz. Perfume with bergamont or other desirable perfume. ...
-The Teeth
How To Beautify The Teeth Dissolve 2 oz. of borax in three pints of boiling water, and before it is cold add one tea-spoonful of spirits of camphor; bottle it for use. Use a tea-spoonful of this wi...
-The Face And Hands
Bloom Of Roses Rose-water 8 oz., carmine, No. 40, 1 dr., aqua ammonia 1/2 oz. Pulverize the carmine to a fine powder, add the aqua ammonia; and when the powder is entirely dissolved, add the rose-w...
-Varnishes
How To Varnish Furniture First make the work quite clean; then fill up all knots or blemishes with cement of the same color; see that the brush is clean, and free from loose hairs; then dip the bru...
-Imitation Nickel Plating
Coarse rasped granulated zinc is boiled for some time in a mixture of 3 parts by weight of sal ammoniac, and 10 of water, the objects immersed and stirred up with a zinc rod. The deposit is silvery br...
-Paint
After the ground is fairly closed up by frost for the winter, it will be an excellent time to paint the house, barn, and other farm buildings, and all the farm implements and carriages that need it. P...
-Fire-Proofing Shingle Roofs
A wash composed of lime, salt, and fine sand or wood-ashes, put on in the ordinary way of whitewash, renders a shingle roof fifty-fold more safe against fire from falling cinders, in case of fire in t...
-Remedy For Damp Walls
3/4 lb. of mottled soap to 1 gal. of water. This composition to be laid over the brickwork steadily and carefully with a large flat brush, so as not to form a froth or lather on the surface. The wash ...
-Darkening Glass
The following, if neatly done, renders the glass obscure yet diaphanous: Rub up, as for oilcolors, a sufficient quantity of sugar of lead with a little boiled linseed oil, and distribute this uniforml...
-Staining Woods
There is little trouble in preparing the stain, and its application differs but slightly from painting. Directions For Staining In preparing any of the tinctures, it is of importance to powd...
-Cleaning And Scouring
How To Clean Pearls Soak them in hot water in which bran has been boiled, with a little salts of tartar and alum, rubbing gently between the hands, when the heat will admit of it; when the water is...
-Cleaning And Scouring. Continued
Cleaning Engravings Put the engraving on a smooth board, cover it thinly with common salt, finely pounded; squeeze lemon-juice upon the salt so as to dissolve a considerable portion of it; elevate ...
-Polishing Wood Carving
Take a piece of wadding, soft and pliable, and on it drop a few drops of white or transparent polish or French polish, according to the color of the wood. Wrap the wetted wadding up in a piece of old ...
-Cleaning Fabrics
Oils and fats are the substances which form the greater part of simple stains. They give a deep shade to the ground of the cloth; they continue to spread for several days; they attract the dust, and r...
-Cleaning Fabrics. Part 2
Fruit Stains First rub the spot on each side with hard soap, and then lay on a thick mixture of starch and cold water. Rub this mixture of starch well into the spot, and afterward expose it to the ...
-Cleaning Fabrics. Part 3
How To Wash Feathers Dissolve four ounces of white soap in two quarts of boiling water; put it into a large basin or small pan, and beat to a strong lather with a wire egg-beater or a small bundle ...
-Cements
How To Use Cements Take as small a quantity of the cement as possible, and bring the cement itself into intimate contact with the surfaces to be united. If glue is employed, the surface should be m...
-Cements. Continued
Cement To Mend Iron Pots And Pans Take 2 parts of sulphur, and 1 part, by weight, of fine black-lead, put the sulphur in an old iron pan, holding it over the fire until it begins to melt; then add ...
-Miscellaneous Recipes
How To Renew Manuscripts Take a hair pencil and wash the part that has been effaced with a solution of prussiate of potash and water, and the writing will again appear if the paper has not been des...
-Hints About Screws
Where screws are driven into soft wood and subjected to considerable strain, they are very likely to work loose, and it is often difficult to make them hold. In such cases the use of glue is profitabl...
-How To Make Putty
Mix a quantity of whiting into a very stiff paste with linseed oil, rubbing and beating it well before using. For particular purposes, as for fanlights, iron-framed green-houses, and other places wher...
-How To Make Sealing-Wax
Red. Take 1 lb. of yellow resin, 5 1/2 oz. of gum lac, 5 1/2 oz. of Venice turpentine, and 1 oz. of vermilion. Melt the lac in a copper pan suspended over a clear fire, add the resin, pour the turpent...
-Blacking For Harness
1. Molasses 1/2 lb., lamb-black 1 oz., yeast a spoonful, sugar-candy, olive oil, gum traga-canth, and isinglass, each 1 oz., and a cow's gall. Mix with 2 pts. of stale beer, and let it stand bef...
-Harness Composition
Put into a glazed pipkin 2 oz. of black resin, place it on a gentle fire; when melted, add 3 oz. of bees-wax. When this is melted, take it from the fire, add 1/2 oz. of fine lamp-black, and 1/2 dr. of...
-Inks
Non-Corrosive Black Ink Digest in an open vessel 42 oz. of coarsely-powdered nut-galls, 15 oz. of gum Senegal, 18 oz. of sulphate of iron, copperas free from copper, 3 dr. of aqua ammonia, 24 oz. o...
-The United States Government Tempering Secret
The following process and mixtures, patented by Garman and Siegfried, and owned by the Steel Refining and Tempering Co., of Boston, Mass., cost the U. S. Government $10,000 for the right of using in t...
-The Housekeeper's Manual Of Cooking
IN the following pages of the Household Compendium, will be found a most concise and valuable collection of recipes and instructions for cooking. The experienced housewife will not be slow in discov...
-Kitchen Utensils
Wooden Ware Kitchen table, wash bench, wash tubs (three sizes), wash board, bosom board, bread board, towel roller, potato masher, wooden spoons, flour sieve, chopping bowl, soap bowl, pails, lemon...
-Soups
The basis of all good soups, is the broth of meat. This may be made by boiling the cracked joints of beef, veal, or mutton, and is best when cooked the day before it is to be eaten. After putting the ...
-Soups. Continued
Oyster Soup Take 1 qt. of water, 1 tea-cupful of butter, 1 pt. of milk, 2 tea-spoonfuls of salt, 4 crackers rolled fine, and 1 tea-spoonful of pepper; bring to full boiling heat as soon as possible...
-Fish
Fish are good when the gills are red, eyes are full, and the body of the fish is firm and stiff. After washing them well, they should be allowed to remain for a short time in salt water sufficient to ...
-Oysters
Oyster Patties Make some rich puff paste and bake it in very small tin patty-pans; when cool, turn them out upon a large dish; stew some large fresh oysters with a few cloves, a little mace, and nu...
-Poultry And Game
When poultry is brought into the kitchen for use, it should be kept as cool as possible. The best position in which to place it is with the breast downward on a shelf or marble slab. The crop should b...
-Poultry And Game. Continued
Dressing For Chicken Or Turkey Chop bread crumbs quite fine, season well with pepper, salt, and plenty of butter, moisten with a very little water, and add a few oysters with a little of the liquor...
-How To Cook Chicken
Roast Turkey Or Chicken Having picked and drawn the fowls, wash them well in two or three waters; wipe them dry; dredge them with a little flour inside and out, and a little pepper and salt; prepar...
-Meats
All salt meat should be put on in cold water, that the salt may be extracted while cooking. Fresh meat, which is boiled to be served with sauces at the table, should be put to cook in boiling water; w...
-Meats. Continued
How To Corn Beef To each gallon of cold water, put 1 qt. rock salt, 1 oz. salt-petre and 4 oz. brown sugar, (it need not be boiled), as long as any salt remains undissolved, the meat will be sweet....
-Salads, Sauces And Pickles
Chicken Salad Three chickens chopped fine, both light and dark meat, the juice of two lemons, 8 or 10 eggs boiled hard, the whites chopped fine and the yolks mashed fine, moisten with 6 tea-spoonfu...
-Salads, Sauces And Pickles. Continued
Tomato Mustard 1 peck of ripe tomatoes; boil with 2 onions, 6 red peppers, and 4 cloves of garlic, for 1 hour; then add one-half pt. or one-half lb. salt, 3 table-spoonfuls black pepper, one-half o...
-Relishes
Scrambled Eggs Beat up 6 eggs with 2 oz. of butter, 1 table-spoonful of cream of new milk, a little chopped parsley, and salt; put all in a saucepan, and keep stirring over the fire until it begins...
-Puddings
Suet Puddings 2 cups of chopped suet, 2 of raisins, 2 of molasses, 4 of flour, 1 of milk, 3 tea-spoonfuls of baking-powder; boil 3 1/2 hours; eat while hot. Sauce for same: 1 cup of sugar, one-half...
-Pudding Sauces
Wine Sauce 2 tea-cups of sugar, 1 tea-cup of butter, stir to a cream, beat 2 eggs very light, and stir all together, add 1 cup of wine, mix and set on top of tea-kettle of boiling water. It must no...
-Pies
Fine Puff Pastry 1 lb. of flour, a little more for rolling-pin and board, and half a pound of butter and half a pound of lard. Cut the butter and lard through the flour (which should be sifted) int...
-Custards, Etc
Rice Custard To half a cup of rice, add 1 qt. of milk and a little salt; steam 1 hour, or until quite soft; beat the yolks of 4 eggs with 4 table-spoonfuls of white sugar; add this just before taki...
-Custards, Etc. Continued
Boston Brown Bread To make 1 loaf: Rye meal unsifted, half a pt.; Indian meal sifted, 1 pt.; sour milk 1 pt.; molasses half a gill. Add 1 tea-spoonful of salt, 1 tea-spoonful of soda dissolved in a...
-Sharlotte Russe
Take 1 qt. of thin cream, sweeten and flavor, whip the cream until all is a froth; then take half a box of gelatine, put in as little cold water as possible to soak, and set on the stove to melt; let ...
-Icing
The following rules should be observed where boiled icing is not used: - Put the whites of your eggs in a shallow earthen dish, and allow at least a quarter of a lb., or sixteen table-spoonfuls, of...
-Cakes
In making cake, it is very desirable that the materials be of the finest quality. Sweet, fresh butter, eggs, and good flour are the first essentials. The process of putting together is also quite an i...
-Ices
Glittering squares of colored ice, Sweetened with syrups, tinctured with spice; Creams, and cordials, and sugared dates; Syrian apples, Othmanee quinces, Limes and citrons and apricots, ...
-Preserving And Canning Fruits
Fruit of all kinds, in coat Rough, or smooth rind, or bearded husk, or shell, She gathers tribute large, and on the board Heaps with unsparing hand. - Paradise Lost. Bring me berries, or such coo...
-Preserving And Canning Fruits. Continued
Preserved Apples Weigh equal quantities of good brown sugar and apples; peel, core, and cut the apples into small square pieces; make a syrup of 1 pt. of water to 3 lbs. of sugar, boil until pretty...
-Beverages
The bubbling and loud hissing urn, Throws up a steaming column; and the cups That cheer, but not inebriate, wait on each; So let us welcome peaceful evening in. - Cowper. Tea When the wat...
-The Art Of Giving Dinners
IT has been said that the social progress of a community is in exact proportion to the number of its dinner parties; and in all ages the friendship of nations, as well as of individuals, has been ceme...
-Manners At The Table
While individual manners at the table require a kind consideration for the rights and feelings of others which marks the true gentleman, there are details of behavior which deserve mention. Raw oys...
-Table Talk
We have presented some rules regarding the preparation and serving of a formal dinner. In every well-regulated family the table should be prepared daily with the same care, if not so elaborate, as for...
-Bills Of Fare
We present the following Bills of Fare for various meals, which may be found of value to our readers: - Bills of fare. Family Breakfast Oatmeal. Buttered Toast. Beefsteak. Potatoes. ...







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