IN the early days of planning a house there are several points which must be taken into consideration to insure an harmonious finished interior.

Either the architect must be wholly acquainted with any color scheme or plan of decoration or furnishing his client may hold, or the matter must be left entirely to his good taste and judgment. In either case, the importance of selection of tone and finish for the woodwork, wall treatment, and the choice of tiles and hardware must be settled in advance, and if more than one person's ideas are to be embodied there must be a perfect understanding among them.

While the color and style of treatment for the walls is very important, the kind of wood employed for the standing woodwork and floors is equally so. This decision should be affected by the type of architecture the house presents, by the character of the room to be considered, and by any decorative scheme of fitting and furnishing which may be pursued.

The wholly agreeable and harmonious treatment of the entrance hall shown in the color illustration is a good example. Here the richly colored stain and dull finish given the wainscot and standing woodwork of the room contrast delightfully with the vivid strong shades of orange, brown, and green used in the wall treatment. The furniture is also a component part of the picture. The fixtures and hardware employed are entirely suited to their environment.

A careful study of Chapter XVI (Woodwork And Its Treatment), which fully explains the various woods, and the finishes best suited to each, is urged upon the reader who is about to build, as such information acquired in time may save him from serious mistakes and many disappointments.

In deciding upon the stain for the woodwork, the selection should show a natural tone, as the architect phrases it; that is, such tone as the wood might naturally acquire through long exposure to weather conditions, and also the rich, dark color that age induces. The various shades of mahogany, from the dark, dull red to the yellow brown, should never be used upon such woods as oak, ash, or chestnut; but on birch, pine, or even poplar, such stain is very suitable - bringing out the grain of the wood attractively. Over oak, ash, and chestnut a great variety of shades of brown or dark moss-green and weathered or silver gray are especially effective.

The Very Simple Dining room of a Country House.

Plate XXI. The Very Simple Dining-room of a Country House.

Where one has the advantage of the advice of a good architect, all questions pertaining to the selection of wood and finish may be readily adjusted. If, however, the work is being done under the supervision of the owner, he must possess himself of certain definite information before going into the matter seriously.

It should always be borne in mind that while the same color may be shown on different woods, this must be obtained by using different stains in which the chemical properties are suited to the condition of sap, etc., of the woods, which will combine to insure the desired color. Stains suited to all character of woods are made, and where complete information in regard to the kind of wood to be used is supplied, specifications and material for successful treatment, and sample panels can be obtained. It is not enough to select only the shade of stain. The number of varnish coats and the quality of the varnish itself must be selected. Definite specifications will eliminate all chance of misunderstanding between owner and contractor, and give assurance of durable and satisfactory results.

Staircase of Gothic Suggestion.

Plate XXII. Staircase of Gothic Suggestion.

In the hall, as shown in Plate XXII, the standing woodwork, wainscot, beamed ceiling, and staircase of Gothic suggestion, supply the full decorative effect. The wood used here is oak, and has been treated to a brown stain which is very gray - in the high lights - the finish is dull.

It has been the part of wisdom here to eliminate entirely figured effects for walls or draperies.

In many types of houses the wainscot and beamed ceilings seem an essential part of the interior architectural detail. For such rooms as entrance hall, dining-room, and library this treatment is especially well suited, and where the dimensions of the room permit it wainscot or walls of paneled wood may be safely introduced in the living-room of the house.

In the very simple dining-room of a country house shown in Plate XXI, the cypress woodwork has been treated with a silver-gray stain; the plain walls, painted in flat tone, a shade of sage green harmonizing well with the woodwork. Over the buffet the stained-glass windows repeat the shades of gray and green, and introduce mulberry and yellow with some blue effectively. The floor in this room, for summer use, is entirely without covering, and has been finished with Mar-not, this floor finish supplying the satisfactory polish which the floor shows. The shelf which extends about the room is set over the top of doors and windows, and adds a quaint touch to the architectural effect of the room. The mahogany furniture used here is effective. If, however, furniture of simple, though delicate lines were substituted, treated with an enamel in silver-gray tone, the effect would be even more harmonious.

The Built in Buffet is a Particularly Decorative Feature of this Room.

Plate XXIII. The Built-in Buffet is a Particularly Decorative Feature of this Room.

In Plate XXIII a second dining-room is shown; this is in a very handsome house, designed along Georgian lines. The built-in buffet is a particularly decorative feature of this room. The beautiful Aubusson tapestry rug in pastel green, oyster white, dull old rose, and some blue, supplies the color for the room. The specially designed enameled chairs are notable features, and show well with the old mahogany table. The woodwork of this room is finished with fine white enamel, showing a slight gloss, contrasting well with the flat finish of the plastered panels.

In the living-room shown in Plate XXIV, the ash paneling of the wall extends to the ceiling line. The cross-beamed ceiling is also of ash. This has been treated with a weathered-oak stain, and given a perfectly flat finish. The architectural detail of this room, as evidenced in the paneling, the beaming of the ceiling, the mantel shelf, and simple grouping of the windows, is well suited to a room of such proportions. Furnished as it is with simply heavy pieces, and supplied with richly colored rugs of the Khiva-Bokhara variety - in tones of rich mulberry and dull green - the room is harmonious and dignified. Such a scheme can be easily carried out in a much simpler room.

The Architectural Detail of this Room is.

Plate XXIV. The Architectural Detail of this Room is Well Suited to a Room of Such Proportions.

The Bedroom in the.

Plate XXV. The Bedroom in the All-the-year-round Home of a Single Woman in a Small Town.

In deciding upon the finish for the woodwork, a simple coat of stain should never be considered sufficient, since durable effects are always desired. The first coat of stain should invariably be followed with a binding coat of Mission-lac or varnish. Wax, as a finish for floors, woodwork, or furniture, favored in the days of our forefathers, is no longer considered desirable, not only from a hygienic standpoint, but from the fact that the constant effort required to keep this finish in good condition has rendered its use almost obsolete.

To-day, the efforts of the manufacturers are directed toward supplying to their customers materials which are lasting and which, at a minimum cost, give a maximum of results. As we have said previously in this book, the small house of the man of modest means is the house of predominating consideration to-day, and to select attractive finishes for this, which are suitable and durable, is important to him.

Velvet finish consists of stain, Mission-lac, and velvet finish. This latter is a varnish which produces a dull, velvety effect without labor of rubbing. Where what is termed a full-varnish finish is used, the coat of stain is followed by Mission-lac and three or four coats of full-body varnish. The last coat is rubbed to a dull finish, if that effect is desired, and it is usually found most attractive. Where wood is left unstained it is treated in a similar manner, except that the coat of stain is omitted. This is known as the natural finish. In Chapter XVI (Woodwork And Its Treatment) very explicit directions for finishing woodwork in these different styles will be found.

In remodeling the old house, where little or no structural change is to be made, the woodwork may be cleaned of its present finish. This should be painted in ivory white, soft gray, or some predominating tone taken from the wall covering.

In Plate XXV a quaint and charming bedroom is shown in which the ivory ground of wall-paper is repeated in ceiling tint and color of woodwork. See specifications in Chapter XX (Specifications For The Illustrations).

Plate XXVI shows a bathroom which is extremely attractive. For the standing woodwork in this room enamel has been used - pure white in tone, matching the porcelain of the tub. The green and white tile paper used above the wainscot to the ceiling line has been given a coat of clear varnish, rendering it washable and sanitary. Complete details and specifications for all of the above-mentioned rooms may be found in Chapter XX (Specifications For The Illustrations).

Shows a Bathroom which is Extremely Attractive.

Plate XXVI. Shows a Bathroom which is Extremely Attractive.