GERALD C. HORSLEY, F. R. I. B. A., writing of the modern English house, rejoices that there is, to-day, a return to excellent and thorough general craft training, so "that good craftsmanship for our homes in stone, wood, brick, plaster, or metal is now generally obtainable; and as any departure in art, or honest effort to improve one branch of art, cannot take place without affecting the whole artistic system, so this recognition of the claims of the craftsman has led to a thorough study and understanding of the materials which he employs. It has become an accepted fact in building that no effort should be spared to insure that all work, in whatever materials it is executed, should be carried out in a way which experience shows to be best adapted to the material itself; and that artistic effect is given by the right use and combination of materials, and by an appreciation of their natural color and texture."

Hall in English Castle of Gothic Architecture.

Plate LXXXV. Hall in English Castle of Gothic Architecture and Early Victorian Furnishing.

An American Modification of English Type of House.

Plate LXXXVI. An American Modification of English Type of House.

From the early Victorian period until a quarter of a century ago a style of architecture of interior finish and furnishing, as well as decoration, prevailed in England, which was, beyond question, inartistic and unpleasing; and since America followed closely the lines laid down by English architects and decorators at that time we also have occasion to rejoice in our own return to that which is good in design and workmanship, as well as in the materials used in the construction of the house.

Flimsy, badly built structures are no longer tolerated in our cities, and while in the erection of the body of the great buildings the laborious and slow hand-work of the craftsman of the past is succeeded by modern time and labor-saving inventions, the same accurate and careful workmanship is demanded.

The quality of the finishing materials procurable to-day for the exterior and interior of the house is unsurpassed. There are stains to be used on the heavy timbers of the house which reproduce, in tone and effect, the coloring of ages. Where varnish is used it does not, of necessity, mean a gloss surface, as there are many flat or dead-surface varnishes on the market.

An English Suburban Cottage.

Plate LXXXVII. An English Suburban Cottage.

The carefu1 architect selects among materials - the output of factories which stand at the head - such colors and finishes as will preserve the wood, retain the beauty of the grain, and remain unaffected by weather conditions.

Where a gloss surface for floors or standing woodwork is desired, it is obtainable, and in the service department of the house it is frequently to be preferred.

The standing woodwork of the interiors of most of the reproductions of English houses is of oak, chestnut, or ash, and treated with a stain of rich, dark tone, and given a dull, waxed finish, effectually reproducing English oak or time-darkened chestnut or ash.

For the standing woodwork in many of the English homes there is used a mixture of dark oak and ivory-white enamel, and the effect is not unpleasing. Frequently the doors are of dark oak, complemented by the mantel and ingle seats of the same wood and finish, while the paneling and standing woodwork of the room will be of ivory enamel.

The examples shown in our illustrations of this chapter are American modifications of English types of houses. These are comfortable and livable, and lend themselves well to almost any setting.

A Combination of Half Timbered Upper with Lower Walls of Stone.

Plate LXXXVIII. A Combination of Half-Timbered Upper with Lower Walls of Stone.

The Shadowing Trees of the Real Country.

Plate LXXXIX. The Shadowing Trees of the Real Country.

To the great master, William Morris, England, and America as well, owe an unending gratitude. His precept laid down to his disciples and pupils, "Have nothing in your house which you do not know to be useful, or believe to be beautiful," has assisted the processes of unfurnishing, and thus beautifying, the ponderously decorated and fitted homes of the recent period of ugliness.

English cottages have long been recognized as having the pictorial quality to a great extent. The lines of the thatched roof, the small diamond-paned windows of these, are frequently embodied in the small house as designed by our architects to-day. Where pic-turesqueness and quaintness appeal to the builder, such additions to the house as have been made to meet the requirements of the exacting householder of this time are confined to the structural materials used and to the more convenient and sanitary arrangements of the interior plan. From an artist's viewpoint there is little room for improvement in the exterior form of the cottage.

Of the larger houses, which yet do not reach the proportions and dignity of a manor house, the half-timbered style of the Tudor period is one much favored by our architects for reproduction. The exterior sanded stucco walls of the English house of this type are in America reproduced by those of cement, the material which is fast becoming a large factor in the building interests to-day.

This style of house, with the upper story of cement, crossed by the longitudinal, perpendicular, and convening lines of richly colored timber, is adaptable to various settings. The shadowing trees and rolling meadows of the real country are as suited to it as the tiny lawns and closely clipped hedges of the suburban street. Also it may be one of a block of city houses giving almost directly upon the street, and yet, architecturally speaking, it will be found to fit well into the picture.

The low-raftered ceilings, quaint mantel-shelves, and darkly stained woodwork of the interior of such houses are retained in the American reproductions, as they make largely for the picturesque quality one feels in them. However, in our floor-plans some of the dividing walls are often left out and wide doorways are so placed as to give an unobstructed view from one room to the other of the first floor.

Such Houses Lend Themselves to Any Setting.

Plate XC. Such Houses Lend Themselves to Any Setting.

Wide Doorways are so Placed as to.

Plate XCI. Wide Doorways are so Placed as to Give an Unobstructed View from One Room to the Other.

In looking over the plans of old and modern small houses of England, one realizes the same spirit which impelled the people of this tight little island to shut in their gardens by high walls and hedges - prevailed in the interior arrangement of their homes.

A Riot of Color and Greenery is Effectively Introduced.

Plate XCII. A Riot of Color and Greenery is Effectively Introduced.

We have also borrowed from the old world the idea of placing boxes of flowers on the outer sills of the window. Set almost under the eaves of the house, a riot of color and greenery is effectively introduced. This style of window-garden lends itself particularly well to casement windows, where the frames holding the diamond panes swing inward, as in the illustration we offer.

This collection of emblems and enrichments of.

Plate XCIII. This collection of emblems and enrichments of varying periods are from well-known sources. Though they are small they tell a story - a story of a nation. Look at the emblem of Napoleon, of Henry II., and of Francis I. Examine, if you will, the detail of the balustrade of the Grand Monarch. See the portrayal of classic shapes. A history is here in one sheet.