THE reader should consider this chapter as a supplement to Chapter XIII (Remodeling And Redecorating), in which this subject has been treated in a general way. Here the more specific information is given, and mention made of certain definite materials which are best suited to the different kinds of finishing required in connection with the remodeling and redecorating of the home. There are many finishing problems which confront one during the course of such changes, and not alone general principles but practical directions are necessary for their satisfactory solution.

The Exterior

Alterations and additions to the exterior require great care in painting, so that the lines between old and new work may be entirely eliminated. Such surfaces should be free from grease and soot, and the loose particles of paint on the parts previously painted must be carefully removed. The wood must be perfectly dry. Moisture often causes blistering, cracking, scaling, etc. Moisture is always present in green or pitchy lumber, and after a rain, a heavy dew, or a fog. No paint should be applied over surfaces in this condition. All new parts and old parts not thoroughly covered must be coated with S-W Primer. Paint to be used on soft, spongy or open surfaces must be thinned liberally with pure, raw linseed oil, with a little pure spirits of turpentine for first coats and well brushed in, while paint to be used on old, hard, and resinous surfaces, or for second coat on new work, requires the use of less oil and a liberal allowance of spirits of turpentine to assist in penetration.

Coats must not be flowed on, but must be well brushed out. Apply the paint in thin coats. Brush it out thoroughly. Any paint put on too thick is liable to crack or peel, and such workmanship is responsible for more unsatisfactory results than any other cause. Do not let one coat of paint stand too long before applying the next coat. The second and third coats must be applied as soon as previous coat is thoroughly dry, if long wear is expected. Do not paint over pitchy surfaces and expect satisfactory results. No paint can do well on such surfaces. Do not paint in frosty weather or over too glossy a surface. Any paint will "crawl" under such conditions. Lumber is steadily deteriorating in quality, and hence more difficult to paint successfully. Do not expect the finishing coats to stand unless the primer is used as thin as possible, thoroughly brushed out, and allowed to become bone dry before recoating. It is false economy to use only two coats of paint on new work. Don't expect best results unless you use a primer and two subsequent coats. Wherever possible, employ a good, practical painter. The instructions given in Chapter XV (Proper Protection For The Exterior) for the application of Sherwin-Williams Paint (prepared) should be carefully considered in connection with the redecorating of the exterior. (Specification No. I.)

In some cases the exterior walls of clapboard or tongue and groove siding have been allowed to deteriorate to such an extent that the many previous coats of paint have become badly cracked and present the appearance of an alligator's back. This condition of the paint has allowed moisture to penetrate the wood itself. Such an exterior wall is frequently covered with shingles in the remodeling. The shingles should be treated in accordance with specification No. 2. In renewing Preservative Shingle Stains, one coat of the same color is sufficient. If another shade is desired, use two coats. Always use a lighter shade than that actually desired, in restaining. Stains invariably dry out darker on old surfaces than on new.

Preservative shingle stains can be used both as a brush coat and for dipping. For brush coating, always apply two coats. Where a dipping coat is used, it is best to apply a brush coat as soon as shingles are laid - it insures a more uniform appearance. Do not soak the shingles in the stain. Dip in and out rapidly, allow excess stain to drain back into original package, then throw shingles into a loose pile so they will dry rapidly. While Preservative Shingle Stains are not deleterious to health, still, if rain water from roofs is saved for household use after staining, allow first few rains to run off, until any unpleasant taste disappears. This caution applies to all stains. It takes about 1,000 shingles to cover 100 square feet, if laid five inches to weather; if laid four inches to weather, about 1,250 shingles; if laid three inches to weather, about 1,700 shingles. Red cedar shingles give best satisfaction. Next in quality come white pine, then Norway pine; the cheapest priced shingles being hemlock. It is good economy to use red cedar shingles - they wear longest. It is best to use galvanized iron nails in shingling.

All metal work used in remodeling requires the same treatment as for new work. (Specification No. 5.) Porch floors have been treated in detail in Chapter XVIII (The Proper Treatment Of Floors) and in specification No. 8.