This section is from the book "Your Home And Its Decoration", by The Sherwin-Williams Company. See also: Nell Hill's Feather Your Nest: It's All in the Details.
Second, That on old work that has been previously painted and presents a hard impervious surface, equal parts of pure spirits turpentine and pure raw linseed oil must be used in reducing the first coat to a thin consistency, to secure proper penetration and homogeneous drying of the new coat of paint.
Third, That "elbow grease" must be used to spread any paint out into thin coats and brush it well into the pores of the wood, and unless so spread, satisfactory results cannot be insured.
Fourth, That a much more satisfactory and durable job of work can be done with a 5-0 or 6-0 round or oval brush than with a long, wide wall brush.
Fifth, That under no circumstances should a new house be painted before wet basements or the plaster have dried out. It should be borne in mind that every yard of green plaster contains nearly a gallon of water, and unless thorough ventilation is given and the moisture is allowed to evaporate and escape in that way, it must necessarily escape through the siding (which may have been thoroughly dry when put on), and the result must inevitably be blistering or peeling.
Sixth, That painting during or following soon after a dew or heavy frost or fog, or in any heavy damp atmosphere, is likely to produce unsatisfactory results, as dry siding absorbs moisture very rapidly.
Seventh, That, to the greatest extent possible, painting in the direct heat of the summer sun should be avoided. Paint on the shady sides of a building as much as can be done.
Eighth, Painting around fresh mortar beds should be avoided, on account of the tendency of the oil in any paint to absorb the moisture and fumes from the lime, destroying the life of the oil and causing the paint to flat out and perish.
Ninth, Not to apply one coat of paint and let that stand a year or so before a subsequent one is applied. It will have weathered sufficiently in that time to absorb some of the elasticity of the succeeding coat, so that the final result cannot be so satisfactory.
Tenth, Again, a coat of paint should not be applied and allowed to stand until it is bone hard before continuing the work. One coat should follow another within reasonable time, until the work is finished. If the under surface is allowed to get too hard, it will not have the proper "tooth" which would allow the succeeding coat to get a "grip" or hold on it.
Eleventh, That leaky roofs and gutters and broken-down spouts are responsible for many a case of blistering or peeling which might, without investigation, be attributed to the paint.
Twelfth, That it is always best to employ a practical and well-experienced painter, who is capable of exercising right judgment with reference to the proper painting of any particular surface, and who is interested in turning out a properly finished piece of work, even at a somewhat higher cost, rather than to entrust the job, at a lower price, to a workman who cannot be thoroughly depended upon.
Thirteenth, That yellow ochre and mineral reds, such as Venetian, iron ore, and other oxides, as well as Prince's mineral, etc., are totally unfit for use as primers on any work which will be subsequently coated with lead and zinc colors, for the reason that when mixed dry they do not combine readily with linseed oil, and many of the particles, unless ground, are never thoroughly saturated - the result being that, after being applied to the surface, the absorption of the oil by such particles and the surface to be painted leaves the film of ochre or oxide, without any binder, brittle and lifeless. The result is perishing and peeling.
Again, on account of the character of the pigments named, they are very difficult to spread of uniform consistency over any large amount of surface, and for that reason, as well as to meet a demand for a "good heavy priming coat," are frequently applied in a very heavy strata which, if allowed to become perfectly hard, presents such an impervious surface as to prevent the proper adhesion of later coats of paint.
To secure the best results from S. W. P., or any other good prepared paint, it must be properly mixed. The illustrations and their explanations tell how to mix S. W. P. properly and in the least time.
Shake the package vio lently.
Stir the pigment and remaining oil with a strong, smooth paddle that is of a shape which will admit of getting around the edges and bring up all of the pigment. Do this until the mass is smooth and entirely uniform throughout.
Cut out the whole top.
Begin returning the surplus vehicle a little at a time, until all has again been added, stirring con stantly.
Pour off into another package at least two-thirds of the vehicle that has raised above the pig ment.
Then "box" the paint - that is, pour it back and forth from one pail to another from halt a dozen to a dozen times, each time leaving about one-quarter of the paint in the pail which is being emptied.