Plain shaft-turning begins to appear in revived form shortly alter 1605, but examples of this date are somewhat rare in tables, still more so in other furniture. Fig. 93 is an arcaded chest, with a lifting lid opening to a flat tray, and a central door. The chest is on a stand with flat-sectioned cushioned frieze, carved with a scroll pattern in low relief, in the style of about 1630-40. The legs are plain turned, the shafts ringed with an astragal at a third of their height. The bottom board is fixed to carved rails, tenoned into the squares of the legs, and pinned. The upper framings, the arches, and the pilasters, are all ornamented with a running guilloche pattern, and the panels have a chopped-in floral inlay. The ogival pilasters, acanthus-carved, and finishing in volutes over the lozenged triglyphs, are exceptional. This is a good example of the work of this date, of fine workmanship and home county origin.

Oak Chest On Stand.

Fig. 93. Oak Chest On Stand. - 1630-40 - C. H. F. Kinderman, Esq.

Oak Court Cupboard.

Fig. 94. Oak Court Cupboard. - 6 ft. 3 ins. wide by 5 ft. 1 in. high by 1 ft. 10 ins. deep. - Mid-seventeenth century.

Oak Chest, Dated 1637.

Fig. 95. Oak Chest, Dated 1637. - 5 ft. 6i ins. wide across front, 2 ft. 5 1/2 ins. high by 2 ft. 2 1/4 ins. deep. - Victoria and Albert Museum.

Oak Chest.

Fig. 96. Oak Chest. - 5 ft. 8 ins. long by 2 ft. Si ins. high by 2 ft. 1 1/2 ins. deep. Date about 1640. - Victoria and Albert Museum.

The large court-cupboard, Fig. 94, has a small guilloche motive introduced into the frieze above the lower doors. The upper frieze has the interlaced arcade type of carving, which persists from the late fourteenth century, as a decorative device. The top is formed of thin boards here running from one side to the other, but sometimes fixed the other way, either butted or tongue-jointed with the end grain of the timber visible on the front. The balusters are without carving, a restrained modification of the bulbous form, turned in the one piece with the scratch-moulded uprights. The rails have the scratch-beads and hollows running through from side to side, with no attempt at mitring with the upright styles. The upper doors have both mitred mouldings and framings. The upward facing edges of the rails are chamfered in the usual manner. Plain cupboards of this type, with simple balusters, can usually be referred to the Welsh bordering counties, Somerset or even northern Lancashire, but in the work of the latter county, fruit-wood, principally cherry, was generally introduced as a relief to the oak, in split balusters or ornaments of a similar character.

Chests made to stand on the floor still continued in favour during nearly the whole of the seventeenth century, but their numbers diminished when the cupboard, or the chest on a raised stand, came into vogue and offered a greater convenience. Towards 1680 the chest with drawers largely superseded the older form with hinged top, and the latter became gradually obsolete, in consequence. These middle seventeenth-century chests, with hinged tops, are frequently dated, in addition to the carving of the initials or names of the original possessors, and are thus valuable indications of period when the dating can be accepted as reliable and original, and not a later embellishment. Thus in Fig. 95, on either side of the upper, and later keyhole, is carved "This Is Esther Hobsonne Chist 1637." which is, approximately, its date. It is of midland county make, probably Cheshire, resembling Fig. 84 in general character. A suggestion of the last phase of the Gothic can be remarked in the frieze rail and the vertical styles. Fig. 96 is of about the same date, with carving of finer design and cutting. The French character of the Henry II period can be traced in the pattern of the three vertical styles, and in the panels themselves. This chest has the appearance of being of south-eastern county origin. It is too fine in quality for the Midlands, although similar patterns were used there. Every stem and guilloche-fillet in this chest is cut with the parting tool, and both design and execution show the greatest care. It is of much higher quality than Fig. 95.

Oak Desk.

Fig. 97. Oak Desk. - Height, 13 ins.; width, 22 ins.; depth, 16 ins. Early seventeenth century. - H. Clifford Smith, Esq.

Oak Lace Or Ruffle Box.

Fig. 98. Oak Lace Or Ruffle Box. - 25 ins. long by 17 ins. deep by 8 1/2 ins, high. - Early seventeenth century. H, Clifford Smith, Esq.

Small pieces, such as portable desks, used chiefly by the travelling illuminator of manuscripts, and lace or ruffle boxes, frequently show the work of the first half of the seventeenth century at its best. A fine example has already been illustrated in Figs. 86 and 87. Fig. 97 shows the Elizabethan strap-motive on front and sides persisting to about the second decade of the seventeenth century, and Fig. 98 has a similar kind of ornament, but in the flattened low-relief fashion of the early years of James I. It is of later type, but is probably of the same or even an earlier date than the previous example. It is made from fine quartered English oak, in two stages, divided by a moulding of fine section, with free versions of the carved triglyph below. The lock is a later addition. Fig. 99 is difficult to date, although it is undoubtedly from the first half of the seventeenth century. It is veneered, with the motto, "Sic transit gloria mundi," inlaid in the central band.

Inlaid Oak Box.

Fig. 99. Inlaid Oak Box. - Early seventeenth century. - H. Clifford Smith, Esq.

Oak Court Cupboard.

Fig. 100. Oak Court Cupboard. - Middle seventeenth century. - C. H. F. Kinderman, Esq.

Oak Court Cupboard.

Fig. 101. Oak Court Cupboard. - Middle seventeenth century. - C. 11. F. Kinderman, Esq.

Oak Court Cupboard.

Fig. 102. Oak Court Cupboard. - Date about 1680-90. 72 - C. H. F. Kinderman, Esq.

Oak Court Cupboard.

Fig. 103. Oak Court Cupboard. - Date about 1660-70. - Messrs. Gregory and Co.