With the above stipulation, therefore, we can commence with the low-pitched roof of the tie-beam or firred-beam description, and illustrate, in an orderly progression, examples from this simple type to that of the ornate hammer-beam and double-aisled construction. No distinction has been attempted, nor is it possible to make any, between the ecclesiastical and the secular types.

Even if the difference between a secular and a sacred building had resulted in a change in constructional design due to such character, - which was not the fact, - there are many examples in which both the sacred and the secular elements enter very largely. That many, if not all, of the earlier roofs were inspired from clerical sources, is probable, but this does not concern us here at present. Fig. 47 is the roof of the Lady Chapel at Long Melford 'in Suffolk. This is of the cambered-beam type, and possesses, in addition, a rare diagonal beam from which two sets Of joists run at right angles to each other. This is, in effect, another form of the dragon-beam referred to on page 42, although the term is not used in referring to the timbering of a roof, but only to the joisting of a floor. The principle, of supporting two sets of joists or rafters at right angles to each other, is the same in each case, however. The tie-beams to this roof are arch-braced to wall-posts, supported on the capitals of the slender wall columns. Fig. 48 is the nave roof from the same church, also of cambered-beam construction. The ridge and purlins are framed between the beams, the common rafters being tenoned into and pegged to the ridge. Both principal and common rafters are elaborately moulded. The clerestory windows are high, and tran-somed, and the columns of the aisles are delicate in proportion for the height of the nave, but with these low-pitched roofs there is practically no outward thrust, and the little there is, the wall-posts, to which the tie-beams are arch-braced, take up very efficiently. These wall-posts and the slender columns below them, rest, alternately, on the junctions and the apex of each arch of the aisles.

Lavenham, Suffolk.

Fig. 55. Lavenham, Suffolk. - North Aisle (c. 1500). 18 ft. span, 95 ft. long.

Kelsale, Suffolk.

Fig. 56. Kelsale, Suffolk. - Roof of Nave. Span 21 ft. 6 ins. Early fifteenth century.

Monks Eleigh, Suffolk.

Fig. 57. Monks Eleigh, Suffolk. - Roof of Nave. Span 19 ft. 9 ins. Early fifteenth century.

Horwood, N. Devon.

Fig. 58. Horwood, N. Devon. - The Roof of the N. Aisle.

Lapford, Devonshire.

Fig. 59. Lapford, Devonshire. - Roof of the Nave.

Fig. 49 is the nave roof of Stoke-by-Nayland Church, in Suffolk, another cambered-beam roof, but here arch-braced to wall-posts resting on stone corbels instead of the capitals of columns. The low rafter-pitch of this roof, and also the jointing of the arch-braces, can be clearly seen in the illustration. The roof has been considerably restored, and some of the tie-beams replaced, with the original mouldings omitted.

Fig. 50 is the aisle roof of Wetherden Church, a lowpitch with a slight lean-to. The cambered - beams are enriched with carving of square rosettes and bosses, with heraldic shields covering the intersections of the tie-beams with the purlins. Only the alternate beams are arch-braced to the wall-posts; those between are merely tenoned into the carved wall-plate. The winged angels applied at the foot of each of the wall-posts are finely executed.

Tawstock, N. Devon.

Fig. 60. Tawstock, N. Devon. - The Roof of the Chapel. 40 ft. long by 15 ft. 9 ins. wide.

Hitcham, Suffolk.

Fig. 61. Hitcham, Suffolk. - The Roof of the Chancel.

Fig. 51 is another lean-to roof from the aisle of Monks Eleigh Church. Here the beams are square sectioned, without camber, and rest on the wall-plates, which, in turn, are supported on plain stone corbels, and the last two main beams are braced to the wall-posts, the spandrels filled with early fifteenth-century pierced and carved tracery.

Crosby Hall.

Fig. 62. Crosby Hall. - Erected 1470, and re-erected in Chelsea, London, S.W., 1908. - Walter H. Godfrey, Architect.

Fig. 52 is the S. aisle roof of Rougham Church, with each beam arch-braced on the S. wall, but, on the nave side with braces only to each alternate beam, carried down to posts and corbels at the junction of each arch of the aisle.

Fig. 53, the aisle of Tawstock, N. Devon, shows the fifteenth-century western type of panelled roof.

Fig. 54 is the roof of the N. aisle of St. Osyth Church in Essex. Here both the beams and rafters are moulded, and the former elaborately carved. Each alternate beam is arch-braced to the wall-posts, these only having heavy carved pendentives at the intersections.

Fig. 55 is the N. aisle roof of Lavenham Church, in Suffolk, a richer example, with alternate beams, only, arch-braced to the wall-posts. The foot of each wall-post is carved with the figure of a Saint, standing on the stone corbel. The famous pew of the Spring family, seen in the distance at the side of the chapel screen, will be illustrated to a larger scale in a later chapter.

Section through the Roof