Light Fawn

Tint white with sienna and a touch of raw-umber.

Foliage Brown

Mix burnt umber with raw and burnt sienna and lighten with white as may be necessary.

French Ochre

This color, of course, is sold ready made, and it must be observed that, in addition to the fineness, the particular tone of this color is very important, especially to grainers.

Golden Brown

Sixteen parts of white lead are mixed with one of burnt sienna and three parts of yellow ochre.

Indian Brown

Mix equal parts of Indian red, lamp black and yellow ochre.


An orange brown lava shade can be had by mixing fifteen parts of black, five parts of orange, four of yellow and a very little white.

Leather Brown

Four parts of yellow ochre, three parts of Venetian red, two parts of white lead, and one part of blue black give a rich leather brown. If a lighter tint is required less black should be used. Or the following recipe may be used: mix white with three times the quantity of red and the same amount of yellow. Some painters use French ochre for a base and tint with burnt umber or Venetian red.

Light Lava

A mixture of raw umber and raw sienna added to white will give this color.

Light Oak

Add French ochre and Venetian red to white as a base.

Lizard Bronze

Fifteen parts of black, one of orange, five of yellow, and four of green will produce this dark greenish yellow shade.

Madder Green

A reddish brown madder shade is produced with one part blue, three parts each of orange and red, and six parts black.


Mix orange and yellow in equal proportions with five times the quantity of black.

Mast Colored Paint

The following recipe gives good results. Mix twelve parts of genuine dry white lead with two parts of French ochre, two parts of gray barytes, and one part of genuine oxide of iron.

Nut Brown

Equal quantities of red and yellow mixed with ten times as much black will give this shade.

Old Wood

To get this shade mix one part of blue and red, two of orange and five of black.

Olive Brown may be made by mixing three parts of burnt umber and one part of lemon chrome yellow; or another shade is given by mixing equal quantities of orange and green with about twelve times as much black. Some painters add lemon chrome yellow to raw umber for a base.

Orange Brown

Two parts of orange chrome yellow mixed with three parts sienna.


A golden brown shade sometimes called by this name is given by mixing three parts of red, six of orange, four of yellow with twenty parts of black.

Purple Brown

Mix four parts of dark Indian red with one part of ultramarine blue and of lamp black. The addition of white lead will usually make a more satisfactory tint, if the shade is too purple, a similar quantity of blue should be added, if too red, more black may be used, or a little yellow added, but purple brown pigment is cheap.

Raw Sienna

Siennas are valuable earth colors most useful for staining or tinting, but practically useless as body colors. The degree of transparency determines to some extent the quality.

Raw Umber

A valuable earth color.

Russet Brown

Indian red lightened with white produces a tint sometimes called by tins name.


A very good russet shade is got by mixing twenty parts of black, twelve of red, ten of orange, three of yellow, and live of green. Or medium chrome green, raw umber, and a little orange chrome yellow added to white as a base will give an excellent russet.


A tinting color made by mixing raw and burnt umber will produce this color.

Flat Bristle Fitches.

Fig. 26. Flat Bristle Fitches.

Seal Brown

Four parts burnt umber, one part golden ochre.


This is a natural color used chiefly by artists. It cannot be imitated and it must not be used in oil.

Sienna Brown

The color is variously called sienna brown, teak brown, and other names. It is made by mixing burnt Italian sienna and French ochre with pure zinc.

Snuff Brown

French ochre and Indian red added to zinc white will produce this color. Another way to produce a snuff color is to mix four parts of medium yellow and two parts of Vandyke brown, or burnt umber may be substituted for the Vandyke brown if desired. Another snuff color may be obtained by mixing burnt umber and yellow ochre, tinging with a little Venetian red.

Tan. Mix ten parts of burnt sienna and four parts of medium chrome yellow with three parts of raw umber. White lead and burnt sienna, to which has been added a very little lamp black, will also produce a tan color. A very rich tan color may be made from ochre, burnt Turkey umber and a little orange chrome with white lead.

Thrush Brown

One part yellow ochre, three parts burnt umber, twelve parts white lead.

Vandyke Brown

This is an important brown to the house painter. It cannot be imitated, although a little red added to umber produces a color somewhat similar to it.

Vienna Smoke

The best burnt umber should be tinted with lemon chrome yellow and a little Venetian red.

Wallflower Brown

This beautiful brown may be made by a mixture of medium chrome yellow and brown lake. Or crimson lake and burnt sienna may be mixed with medium chrome.