The readiest way to estimate chalk is to divide the nitric acid solution obtained above into two equal parts, in one estimate the lead as above (multiplying the weight found by ten instead of five), and in the other estimate the chalk. The lead is removed with ammoniac sulphide in the manner described before, to the clear filtrate, ammoniac oxalate is added, if chalk is present, a white precipitate of calcic oxalate is produced. This precipitate is assisted in its separation by boiling. Then collected on a filter, washed with hot water, dried and weighed. The ignition is complete when the contents of the capsule assume a tinge of gray color. The weight obtained after deducting .05 grain of filter ash is multiplied by ten for the percentage of chalk. In inexperienced hands it will be better to ignite strongly and weigh as lime, multiplying by ten for percentage of lime and by 1.7857 for percentage of chalk. This chalk may be converted into sulphate of lime by multiplying by 1.36, and the product deducted from the percentage of lead and lime obtained above, prior to calculating the percentage of white lead. The chalk precipitate should be tested at the blowpipe for its characteristic brick-red flame.

Some analysts treat the mixed precipitate of sulphate of lead and calcium with concentrated solution of ammoniac acetate, and weigh the insoluble as chalk. This method is unreliable. The oil must first be burnt off, and the ignition continued until no black carbonaceous matter remains. It must be ignited in a porcelain basin over an Argand burner, turned low at first and gradually raised. The ignition must be completed over a Bunsen. Much time is saved and the analysis rendered more accurate by spreading the mixed paint in a thin layer over the bottom of the basin, and when the ignition is nearly complete, by crushing the scaly crust with a glass rod, carefully remove the adhering pieces on the glass rod by means of a feather. The difference in weight before and after ignition represents the oil plus loss by reductions of white lead to metallic lead. The residue is washed into a beaker with water as before, and afterwards with nitric acid. The metallic lead, which adheres strongly to the bottom of the basin, must be rubbed vigorously with the end of a glass rod until entirely removed. This requires a little patience, but it yields to persistent rubbing.

The remainder of the process is the same as in the case of dry white lead.


The presence of chalk can only be ascertained after separating the lead. This is best done by adding ammonia solution to the nitric acid solution until alkaline, then sulphate of ammonia in excess, and boiling for five minutes. Filter oft* the black precipitate which is formed, and to the filtrate, first tested with an additional drop or two of sulphate of ammonia to insure the removal of the whole of the lead, add ammoniac oxalate. If a white precipitate appear, it is calcic oxalate. Test a portion of this precipitate at the blowpipe. A brick-red color imparted to the flame verifies the presence of chalk.