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Cyclopedia Of Painting | by George D. Armstrong



Containing Useful and Valuable Information on the Following Subjects: Adulteration of Paint - Blistering of Paint - Brushes - Cal-cimining - Carriage Painting - China Painting - Colors - Color Harmony - Color Mixing - Color Testing - Exterior Painting - Gilding - Graining - House Painting - Marbling - Mildew - Oils and Driers - Oil Painting on Glass - Painting a Bath Tub - Painting in Distemper - Paperhanger's Tools - Paperhanging - Pigments - Plain Oil Painting - Primary Colors - Priming - Scenic Painting - Sign Painting - Stains - Staining - Stencilling - Turpentine - Varnishes - Varnishing - Water Color Painting - When Not to Paint - Practical Points on Painting - Useful Information

TitleCyclopedia Of Painting
AuthorGeorge D. Armstrong
PublisherFrederick J. Drake & Co.
Year1908
Copyright1906, Frederick J. Drake & Co.
AmazonCyclopedia of Painting
Cyclopedia Of Painting

Over 100 Illustrations

Cyclopedia Of Painting 2
-Introduction
The character of this work is indicated by its title. The topics are treated with a view to technically instruct those who desire to make a study of the art of painting as practised in the paint-shops...
-Adulteration Of Paint
To understand this subject intelligently it will be necessary to possess some slight knowledge of chemistry and of the materials used by chemists, but any intelligent person can, by careful reading of...
-Chalk
The readiest way to estimate chalk is to divide the nitric acid solution obtained above into two equal parts, in one estimate the lead as above (multiplying the weight found by ten instead of five), a...
-Blistering Of Paint
In the following lines are laid down some general rules that govern this phenomenon, and from the same draw some practical conclusions, the object of which will be to set the question at rest. The bli...
-Brushes
Cheap goods of any kind never reflect credit on the maker. Neither do they give satisfaction to the consumer or dealer. It requires skill and art as well as quality of material to produce high grades ...
-Brushes. Continued
Flat Bristle Varnish Brush These are made of the best white bristles, set with glue, doubled nailed, soft yet very elastic, with chiseled points. They are considered the best brush made by many of ...
-Camel's-Hair Brush
For laying fine color no better brush can be had than the camel 's-hair brush, called by some mottlers, by others blenders, and again by others spal-ters, each term, however, is foreign to the America...
-Camel's-Hair Tool
Small brushes, called tools, made of camel's-hair are used for blacking irons, lacquering, and other work of like nature. The next brush to be considered is the camel's-hair duster, a tool used mostly...
-Varnish Brushes
The best method of keeping varnish brushes is to suspend them in the same description of varnish as that they are used for. As this is not always possible, boiled oil may be used instead. Brushes m...
-Cleaning Paint Brushes
All brushes, after being used, should be carefully cleaned. This is best effected by immersing the hair of the brushes in a little raw linseed oil, the oil should afterwards be washed out with soap an...
-Calcimining
Plaster ceilings are usually finished with calcimine, which, besides the advantages of cheapness and of covering in one coat, where with oil paint three would be required, shows superiority in many ot...
-Calcimining. Continued
Before commencing the actual calcimining, lightly rub over the whole of the ceiling with a piece of fine glass-paper, to take off any little knots or brush-hairs left on the finishing coat. Then dust ...
-Carriage Painting
After the body is completed by the wood-worker, the painter gives it a thorough dusting inside and out, and proceeds to prime it. Pouring from the can a small quantity of filler with an ordinary paint...
-Priming The Wheels And Under Parts
When the wheels, beds and bars are finished by the wheelwright, and before the grain of the wood is raised by the atmosphere, a coat of filler is put on every part in the same manner as the body, wipi...
-White Lead Priming
White lead, the base or foundation, should be pure, but dealers have many means of adulterating it with sulphate of baryta, or barytes, gypsum, or plaster of paris and carbonate of lime, or common cha...
-Rough-Stuff
The leveling or rough-stuff coats consist of a coarse mineral paint, designed to level down or fill up all imperfections in the surface of the carriage body, such as plane and file marks or brad holes...
-Coloring The Body
The filler put on over the rough-stuff having been allowed from 24 to 48 hours for drying, the coloring is now in order. The surface must not be disturbed by sandpaper, but a simple dusting off may be...
-China Painting
Mediums These are requisites, and upon the kind used and upon their quality depends, to an extent greater than is generally supposed, the appearance of the finished work. The mediums are, as their ...
-China Painting. Continued
Paint The colors used in painting upon china or earthenware are, for the most part, oxides of certain metals. A few colors, however, such as the deep transparent blues, and yellows from one source,...
-Blacks
Lamp black is the soot produced by burning oil, resin, small coal, resinous woods, coal tar or tallow. It is in the state of very fine powder, works smoothly, is of a dense black color and durable, bu...
-Blues
Prussian blue is made by mixing prussiate of potash with a salt of iron. The prussiate of potash is obtained by calcining and digesting old leather, blood, hoofs or other animal matter with carbonate ...
-Browns
Browns generally owe their color to oxide of iron. Raw umber is a clay similar to ochre colored by oxide of iron. The best comes from Turkey; it is very durable both in water and in oil; does not inju...
-Greens
These, of course, may be made by mixing blue and yellow together, but such mixtures are less durable than those produced direct from copper, arsenic, etc. The latter are, however, objectionable for us...
-Reds
Carmine, made from the cochineal insect, is the most brilliant red color known. It is, however, too expensive for ordinary house painting and is not durable. It is sometimes used for inside decoration...
-Whites
The most important group of painters' colors are the white pigments. White is the basis of nearly all opaque painting designed for the laying and covering of grounds, whether they be of woodwork, meta...
-Yellows
Chrome yellows are chromates of lead, produced by mixing dilute solutions of acetate or nitrate of lead and bichromate of potash. This makes a medium tint known as middle chrome. The addition of sulph...
-Color Harmony
The most difficult subject with which the painter has to deal is that of color harmony. In other words, how to use different colors in decoration in such a manner as to produce a perfect harmony and a...
-Matching The Wallpaper
The simplest plan, and therefore the one which is usually followed, is to take the prevailing color of the wall and to use this on the woodwork and introducing other colors which may occur in the pape...
-Contrasting Harmonies
From this single example it can readily be seen that contrasting colors often give the very best results. A wall painted green may look very monotonous, but if a frieze, having some bright red used li...
-Contrasting Harmonies. Continued
Gray This neutral color agrees with and helps every other color. A Warm Gray Wall. With this the woodwork may well be a tawny leather color, with either buff or cream in the mouldings. A quiet r...
-Color Mixing
The following compound colors or tints can be made by mixing the colors as given herewith. The exact shades required can be made to suit by the exercise of a little judgment in proportioning the color...
-Blue Color Mixing
When it is desired to tone a blue down, a little burnt sienna and white should be added. Fig. 22. Angular Bristle Fresco Brushes. Antwerp Blue This color should always be bought ready m...
-Blue Color Mixing. Part 2
Heliotrope This color is obtained by using two parts of zinc white, three of bright red, and four of ultramarine blue. Implement Blue This is made sirnply by mixing ultramarine with white. Ba...
-Blue Color Mixing. Part 3
Nile Blue Mix a little white with Prussian blue and chrome green, using rather less of the latter than the former. The result is a pale greenish blue. Normandy Blue To get this greenish blue ...
-Brown Color Mixing
The painter will probably be surprised at finding the number of browns obtainable. Acorn Brown This is very similar to a rich chocolate, and may be made in the same way. Alderney This is a...
-Brown Color Mixing. Part 2
Chocolate Five parts of burnt sienna and one part of carmine or lake give a rich chocolate. A less expensive color is obtained by mixing Indian red and lamp black with a little yellow ochre. A touc...
-Brown Color Mixing. Part 3
Light Fawn Tint white with sienna and a touch of raw-umber. Foliage Brown Mix burnt umber with raw and burnt sienna and lighten with white as may be necessary. French Ochre This color, ...
-Gray Color Mixing
Argent A reddish gray tint, which can be produced by mixing together nine parts of black, sixteen of white, one of red and a little orange. Ash Gray Lump black and a little French ochre added...
-Green Color Mixing
Aloes A pale sage green shade. To obtain it mix six parts of black, three of white, one of chrome yellow, and three of Brunswick green. Apple Green The simplest way to obtain this is to mix m...
-Green Color Mixing. Part 2
Foliage Green One part of blue black may be mixed with four parts of lemon chrome. Use medium chrome yellow if a darker shade is required. French Green This is a bright yellowish green, which...
-Green Color Mixing. Part 3
Mountain Green Add to medium chrome yellow sufficient cobalt to produce the desired hue, adding a little white if necessary. Myrtle Three parts of dark chrome green, one part of ultramarine b...
-Japan Color Mixing
Rich Dark Red Mix Indian red with a little black Japan. Rich Dark Brown Mix crimson lake and black Japan, varying the amount of each according to the depth required. Chocolate Brown Mix...
-Japan Color Mixing. Part 2
Carmine This is an artist's color. Its rich red tint can hardly be imitated. A light vermilionette of good grade, to which is added a little brighl yellow, may be used. Carnation Red Three pa...
-Japan Color Mixing. Part 3
Light Pink Tint white lead with a little pure vermilion. The word pink does not bear any very definite meaning, as almost any bright red such as carmine or crimson added to plenty of white give a g...
-Japan Color Mixing. Part 4
Pink White lead tinted with orange lead gives a bright pink. Plum Mix with equal parts of white lead. Indian red and ultramarine blue in the proportion of two parts of lead to one of each of ...
-Japan Color Mixing. Part 5
Scarlet Lake A color very similar may be obtained in one of the many vermilionettes on the market. It will be convenient to remember that all vermilions are lightened by the use of pale chrome inst...
-White Color Mixing
A very little ultramarine green added to white lead makes a white sometimes called Japan white Equal parts of white lead and oxide of zinc are frequently used as a white paint, although two parts o...
-Yellow Color Mixing
If a yellow is too bright it may be lowered by adding a small quantity of blue and red. Instructions for obtaining the various grades of yellow are given explicitly herewith. Alabaster This is y...
-Yellow Color Mixing. Part 2
Citron To produce this color use Venetian red as a base and add one part of Prussian blue, two of chrome yellow and two of white. Colonial Yellow Medium chrome yellow mixed with white lead an...
-Yellow Color Mixing. Part 3
Light Stone Tint white lead with French ochre and lamp black. Lemon Yellow This is also called lemon chrome, and is the palest shade of lemon chrome yellow. It is very useful for preparing th...
-Color Testing
Although to accurately test the quality of a color requires somewhat elaborate experiments, both chemical and practical, yet there is no reason why the painter should not determine with a sufficient d...
-Purity Of The Material
This is sometimes of considerable importance, as in the case of white lead, whilst in others, for example the earth colors, it can hardly be said that there is a standard of purity. As a rule a knowle...
-Fineness Of Grinding
The method of testing the fineness of a pigment usually emplojed by the painter is to rub a little on the finger nail, but this is a crude and unreliable method. If the pigment is dry and it is desire...
-Spreading Capacity Or Covering Power
The spreading capacity of pigments and their body are very nearly related, although of two equal in body one may possess greater covering power or spreading capacity than the other. A practical method...
-Body (Pigments)
The word body, as applied to pigments, is almost synonymous with opaqueness. It is the most important property of a pigment, and it is because white lead possesses the quality in an eminent degree tha...
-Tinting Or Staining Strength
Any painter can test the tinting strength of any color himself in a very simple manner. All that is necessary is to have a pair of druggists' scales, some blotting paper, a palette knife, some pieces ...
-The Permanence Of Colors
It must be admitted that it is very disappointing to a painter to find, after taking pains to produce the exact color required, that it flies or fades after a little exposure to the weather. The tests...
-Colors Fast To Light
Some colors fly or fade very quickly, while others are perfectly permanent. The following is a list of the principal permanent colors under ordinary conditions: Yellow ochre, light red, Indian red, um...
-Estimating. Exterior Work
To correctly estimate, one must know that a square is 100 square feet and that a square yard is 9 square feet. He must then obtain the actual dimensions of the surface to be painted. He must know how ...
-Consideration Of Surface
New Work In figuring a piece of work, the consideration of the surface to be painted is of as much importance as measurements. There are certain lumbers used for exterior building which cannot with...
-Exterior Painting
New Work Be sure the character of the lumber is understood as to its absorption of the paint, and to assure satisfactory results see that the paint is reduced as thin as possible according to the c...
-Exterior Painting. Part 2
Putty Do not use cheap, ready-made putty. If it is not possible to secure putty that is known to be made from linseed oil and whiting, it is best for the painter to make the putty himself. This wil...
-Exterior Painting. Part 3. Finishing Coat - Two-Coat Work
Be sure the priming coat is hard dry over the entire surface before commencing to apply the second coat. It is very often the case that part of the work has been primed for a month or six weeks and ot...
-Exterior Painting. Part 4
Second Or Middle Coat Before applying the second or middle coat, be sure the priming coat is hard dry over the entire surface. As this is the medium between the foundation or priming coat and the p...
-Exterior Painting. Part 5
Foundation And Flues Do not paint damp brick. Oil paint is the best size for brick. If the flues run from the foundation to the roof on the outside of the building and are to be painted a different...
-Exterior Painting. Part 6
Veranda Columns And Rails These should be primed as soon as set, as they are usually made of heavy lumber and liable to crack if not primed. Do not paint columns and rails unless dry. Paint will so...
-Exterior Painting #2
Old Work In repainting an old surface, it is especially important that the contractor consult a practical painter. Carefully examine the surface to he painted before commencing the work and determi...
-Cracked And Peeled Paint
Owing to the many kinds of cracked and peeled surfaces, as well as the innumerable causes from which they come, it is impossible to give definite directions for repainting under all of the varied cond...
-Cracked Surfaces
When the paint is cracked in small hair lines, it is usually called crazing of the paint. Generally these hair lines run crosswise of the grain the entire width of the boards to which the paint is app...
-Alligatored Paint
Where the paint is cracked in every direction, forming blocks, triangles, and in fact, every conceivable shape, it is called alligatoring. This comes from a number of causes, but can usually be traced...
-Peeled Paint
In preparing the surface for the repainting of peeled work, the same care should be exercised as with cracked paint. Where the paint has commenced to peel in small chips and upon examination it is fou...
-Repainting A Surface On Which The Paint Has Been Burned
Where paint is peeling or cracking badly, the only satisfactory way is to burn the paint to the bare wood. This leaves all of the surface practically new, and if the character of the work is understoo...
-Blistering
When paint blisters, the cause is usually attributed to dampness, and it is perhaps true that more trouble of this character on new buildings can be traced to wet or unseasoned lumber or fresh plaste...
-Blistering Over Ochre
If a coat of oil paint is applied over a heavy coat of ochre priming which has dried hard and flinty, it will often cause it to blister badly when exposed to the heat of the sun. This result is due to...
-Roof
Do not paint damp shingles. Allow time for rain, dew or frost to dry off and the roof to become thoroughly dry. Sweep the roof with a good broom and remove all dirt, lint, cinders and soot. The mix...
-Foundation And Flues
Foundations or flues which have been painted should be treated the same as new work. Where foundations or flues have been kept painted, with oil paint, one coat of similar color mixed to a good consis...
-Window Sash
Break sashes loose so they can be worked without trouble. Scrape off all loose paint and putty, then sandpaper. If the putty is soft or broken away, it is best to remove all and not attempt to patch u...
-Outside Blinds
Remove blinds from the building and examine the slats to see whether they will work. If stuck together from previous painting, they are sometimes very difficult to break loose and require a great deal...
-Veranda Columns And Rails
Be sure that the surface is dry. Scrape and sandpaper loose paint from veranda columns and rails before first coating. Fill the cracks and nail holes with paint. See that there is no mildew on the bas...
-Veranda And Porch Floors
Sweep the floor clean, also remove dirt from cracks so that the paint can be brushed into them. Paint applied too heavily on floors will not dry solid and will soon scuff up. Be sure there is no dampn...
-Old Work - One Coat
Where the paint has stood for two or three years and one coat is to be given over a shade similar to the one already on the building, the surface should be thoroughly cleaned with a wire brush or broo...
-Gilding
Gilding may be broadly understood to mean the application of metals in thin leaf form to decorative purposes, by the use of mordants and vehicles. Originally limited in scope to the application of gol...
-Methods Of Gilding
The various methods of applying gold leaf used by painters and decorators are termed: Oil gilding, Japan gilding, and Water gilding. These methods vary in detail upon different kinds of grounds. Oi...
-Tools For Laying Gold
The operation of gilding is the same, whatever process is used, in as far as laying the gold is concerned. The best and general method is by means of a cushion and tip. The cushion is a small board ab...
-Laying Gold Leaf
The size being ready to receive the gold, about a dozen leaves are put in a heap in the back part of the cushion, then the cushion is taken in the left band and the knife in the right. The gold is ...
-How To Prevent Gold Sticking To Ground
The ground for gold sizing must be free from any tackiness, hard, dry. and impervious. If it is not so it must be coated with some preparation to prevent the gold sticking where it is not required. Th...
-Burnish And Matt Gilding
Burnish and matt gilding are much alike in method of procedure. They are principally used for enriched ornament, cornices, and picture frames. The work is brought up to a good surface in size and whit...
-Glass Gilding
Gilding upon glass is done in the same manner as described for water gilding, isinglass size being used in the place of water. The glass is well cleaned, freed from grease, and set before the operator...
-Platinum And Silver Laying And Metaling
Platinum leaf is used in the same manner as gold lead, and is applicable to all the same purposes. Silver leaf and gold leaf of very pale tint, that is, which contains a large proportion of silver,...
-Bronzes
Bronzes have the same qualities as the baser leaf metals, and the same precautions must be observed in using them. They must not be mixed with oil varnishes, or oil mediums, but can be put upon japann...
-Lacquer For Metals
Various lacquers are used to give gold or metal a different color. Any lacquer can be made from an ounce of good shellac dissolved in half a pint of spirits of wine, and tinted with saffron, turmeric,...
-Preparing Open Grain Wood And Stone For Gilding
To prepare rough cut deal, ash, open grain oak, or stone, for gilding, give a couple of coats of French polish and spirit varnish in equal parts, or two coats of patent knotting, then gold size in the...
-Graining
The art of graining consists in working transparent color over an oil ground, the ground being of a color that will match the lightest tone in the markings on the wood. The transparent colors used for...
-Graining. Part 2
The graining colors should be purchased in bulk, and if to be used merely for practice, obtain such cheap grainers and stainers as burnt umber, burnt sienna, vandyke brown, Venetian reds, Italian ochr...
-Graining. Part 3
The best megilp, seldom, however, used for graining on account of the expense, is made from mastic varnish and boiled oil. To make it, pour the boiled oil into the varnish, and use the jelly formed by...
-Graining. Part 4
Umbers, natural pigments consisting of a mixture of clays and brown hematite, are valuable on account of their transparency and of their good drying qualities when in oil; the latter qualities are so ...
-Graining. Part 5
Very dark or antique oak has a neutral ground, in which the red and yellow are subservient to the umber or black tones. The graining color may be Vandyke brown or ivory black and burnt umber in oil; b...
-Pollard And Knotted Oak Graining
The distemper or water color method for ordinary oak graining has little to recommend it. For graining in imitation of pollard oak, however, this method is invaluable. Pollard, or rather pollarded, oa...
-Graining Grounds
Maple White lead tinted with a very little vermilion and about an equal quantity of lemon chrome. Some prefer yellow ochre only, others ochre and raw umber in the proportion of four ounces ochre an...
-Graining Colors
It will be understood that the method of obtaining a graining color varies just as much as it does in the case of the ground color, according to the opinion of the painter. The following are given as ...
-Graining Iron Store Fronts
Thoroughly clean the surface. If the work has been covered with a shop coat, scrape and thoroughly sandpaper before applying the paint. In painting an iron store front in oil or flat color and varn...
-Interior Finish - New Work
The protection and preparation of the surface should be the first consideration and should be as carefully planned and carried out for plain painting, staining, varnishing or natural finishing as for ...
-Oil Paint In White
Where two coat oil paint work is specified, without sizing, the first coat should be reduced with half turpentine and half oil to a good consistency, then a half pint of good hard drying or enamel var...
-Gloss Work In White
Satisfactory two-coat gloss work cannot be done on bare wood. If the work is not filled or sized, the primer should be mixed to a thin consistency with 7/8 turpentine and 1/8 hard drying or enamel var...
-Oil Paint In Tints
Reduce the priming coat with half turpentine and half oil. To one gallon of paint add a half-pint of good varnish. The paint should be of good consistency and applied smoothly and evenly. When hard dr...
-Gloss Work In Tints
The primer can be mixed with half oil and half turpentine. It is safer to cut down the amount of oil, using 2-3 turpentine and 1-3 oil. After the priming is thoroughly hard, putty and sandpaper and ap...
-Flat Finish In Three Coats
A satisfactory flat finish cannot be obtained with less than three coats unless the wood has been filled or sized. The priming coat for bare wood should be mixed to a thin consistency with 7/8 turpent...
-Enamel In Three Coats
The priming or first coat should be mixed according to directions for flat work. If the lead used is soft ground, it should be washed with turpentine and allowed to stand over night and the turpentine...
-Zinc Finish
The priming coat for zinc should be as directed for flat work. Lead is best to use for priming or first coat over a sized surface. Where two or three coats of flat zinc work are specified, reduce zinc...
-Ebony Or Flat Black Finish
Where work is to be finished in ebony, either in gloss or flat, the wood should be prepared according to the finish. If soft wood and is to be finished in ebony, it should receive a coat of shellac; p...
-Cupboards And Pantries
When cupboards and pantries are to be painted, the first or priming coat should be applied to the bare wood and mixed with 2-3 turpentine and 1-3 oil. This will dry hard and can be sandpapered smooth....
-Graining Ground
Graining grounds which are mixed with all oil are very liable to crack and check after varnish has been applied over them. Care should always be used in noting that the undercoats are thoroughly hard ...
-Graining Floors
Where the priming can be allowed to stand a sufficient time to thoroughly harden, the paint can be mixed with half turpentine and half oil. Where time will not permit, 2-3 turpentine and 1-3 oil shoul...
-Staining
Where it is possible, the wood should be stained before being nailed to the wall or as soon as the carpenter has finished dressing. This will save time and labor in finishing. The stain should be of t...
-How To Paint Plastered Walls
Plastered walls should receive a coat of size before painting. The best size which can be applied to a wall is a thin coat of oil paint. This is hard to apply without showing laps, but these can be ea...
-House Painting
Interior Finish - Old Work In repainting a surface that has been painted, varnished, enameled or stained a number of times, it is important to know the character of the surface to be finished, the ...
-House Painting. Continued
Kitchens And Pantries Kitchens and pantries, to be repainted, should be thoroughly cleaned. The best way is to wash the woodwork and walls with rainwater and washing compound, using 1/4 pound of wa...
-Marbling
Sienna Marble The ground of Sienna marble is white lead; the work is then to be evenly gone over with white paint mixed with equal quantities of turpentine and oil. After this, mix two light tints,...
-White-Veined Marble
The ground for this marble is white laid perfectly smooth. The first vein will be found, on inspecting a specimen, to be very faint; it is the broad vein of the mica seen through a great depth of the ...
-Black-And-Gold Marble
The ground is black. Paint the large spots from which the fibrous veins are to run with yellow ochre and white, the bright tone of which must be heightened by the addition of a little vermilion. These...
-Porphyry Marble
Mix the ground color of Venetian red with a little vermilion and white, until it is of the tint required. The first layer of spots is produced by sprinkling in the following manner: Mix some of the gr...
-Egyptian Porphyry
The ground for this rare and beautiful marble is composed of vermilion and white lead. A tint of Indian red and lake is then sprinkled over the ground by striking the handle of the brush containing th...
-Blue-And-Gold Marble
The ground for this marble is a light blue, and when this is quite dry dab on in separate patches light blue, white and Prussian blue, leaving portions of the ground visible. Soften these patches toge...
-Blue Ruby-Spotted Marble
The blue ruby-spotted marble comes from Switzerland; it is light-colored, beautiful marble which may be introduced either in large or small masses with equally good effect. The ground for this marb...
-Dove Marble
For the ground of this marble two or three coats of good lead-color should be laid, and these should each be nicely smoothed with glass paper. The color used for marbling is the same as the ground, bu...
-Jasper Marble
The ground is composed of Venetian red, red lead and a small quantity of chrome yellow, mixed with oil and turpentine in equal parts. Or additional brilliancy may be given to the color by vermilion or...
-Granite
Granite is a well-known igneous rock, composed principally of three minerals, Quartz, Felspar and Mica, united in a confused crystallization, that is, without any regular arrangement of the crystals. ...
-Mildew
Mildew is a serious trouble. This is a vegetable growth and always a sure indication of dampness. It is impossible to satisfactorily paint a surface on which mildew has formed unless the surface is fi...
-Poppy Oil
This is a colorless oil, and is in some instances used for delicate works where the length of time required for drying is no object. It is much celebrated in some old books, under the name of oil of p...
-Driers
Driers are used to hasten the drying of paints. These are ground up in oil and are mixed in small quantities with the color; some colors, in fact, will not perfectly harden without them, but remain st...
-Drying Oils
All the fixed oils have an attraction, more or less powerful, for oxygen, and by exposure to the air they either become hard and resinous, or they only thicken slightly and become sour and rancid. Tho...
-Pale Drying Oil
The oil should be macerated two or three days at least upon about an eighth of its weight of litharge, in a warm place, occasionally shaking the mixture, after which it should be left to settle and cl...
-Boiled Oil
The above mixture of oil and litharge, gently and carefully boiled in an open vessel till it thickens, becomes strong drying oil for dark colors. Boiled oil is sometimes set on fire purposely, in maki...
-Drier For Zinc White
Purified linseed oil is boiled for six or eight hours, and to every 100 pounds of boiled oil there are added five pounds of powdered peroxide of manganese, which may be kept in a bag like litharge. Th...
-Powdered Drier
Pure sulphate of manganese 1 part, pure acetate of manganese 1 part, calcined sulphate of zinc 1 part, white oxide of zinc 97 parts. The sulphate and acetate are ground in a mortar to an impalpable po...
-Oil Painting On Glass
There are three principal modes of oil-painting on glass, as follows: Non-Transparent Painting on Transparent Glass. In this mode the materials are the same, and the method the same, except in one ...
-Transparent Painting On Transparent Glass
This kind of painting is applied to windows, magic-lantern slides, etc. Mirror-Painting on the Back of the Glass. This style of painting may be done either before or after the silvering. The former...
-Painting A Bath Tub
The method for painting an ordinary room is the plan which is followed in most cases of painting. The method of painting a bath tub, however, is an entirely different one. The wear and tear of an ordi...
-Painting In Distemper
This mode of coloring, which, when applied to fine art purposes, is termed tempera painting-, is undoubtedly the most ancient, and derives its name from the fact that colors are mixed or tempered with...
-Painting In Distemper. Continued
The wood brush is rapidly worked in a circular direction, the wall being kept moistened with the sponge, and finally the surface is washed clean and well rubbed with the cloth, and then allowed to bec...
-Straw Color
White lead, Massicot (in oil). Whiting, Dutch pink (in distemper). Whiting, Chrome yellow. Lavender, Lilac, And French Grays Produced according to the predominance of white, blue or red. Whit...
-Paperhangers' Tools
A number of the tools used by a paperhanger are shown in the following illustrations. Two styles of shears used by a paperhanger are shown in Fig 38. Paperhanger's paste brushes are shown in Fig...
-Painters' Tools
Painters' scrapers are shown in Fig. 61: A - Clipped point, metal bolster, coeabola wood handle. B - Square point, metal bolster, coeabola handle. C - Clipped point, steel ferrule, half elastic. D - S...
-Paper Hanging
When re-papering an old wall the first thing to be done is to remove the old paper. Now although this is very necessary in order to produce a good job, as well as for sanitary reasons, it is very freq...
-Paper Hanging. Continued
Paperhanger's Paste There are several ways of making paperhanger's paste, but they all practically come to the same thing in the end. Take a sufficient quantity of ordinary white flour, place it in...
-Hanging The Paper
It is supposed the paper is trimmed and cut into lengths ready to hang. The lengths are rather longer than is actually required, and the paperhanger will find that at this point he reaches his greates...
-Hanging Ceiling Papers
Papered ceilings are used at present to a very much greater extent than they were formerly; in fact, in the better class of houses they are now used almost invariably. A papered ceiling with a papered...
-Cleaning Wallpaper
The tenant or house owner at those unpleasant periods in the year when spring cleaning appears to be inseparable from a quiet existence, or when parts of the house are re-decorated owing to a sudden f...
-Pigments
Names of pigments are not always synonymous with the colors. Dutch pink is yellow, verditer is blue, lake is not purple-blue always, but sometimes green, yellow, brown, etc., or it may be found as a p...
-White Lead
The pure product dissolves completely in dilute nitric acid, as well as in potash and in soda lye. When exposed to the sulphuretted hydrogen or moistened with ammonium hydrosulphide it turns brown or ...
-Zinc White or Zinc Oxide
Zinc White or Zinc Oxide has, in recent years, made great advances in popularity among painters. Compared to white lead, it is as white to yellow. It is indeed beautifully white, very fine, and easily...
-Pigments Liable To Change Under The Influence Of Sulphuretted Hydrogen, Air And Moisture
Yellow Chrome yellow, mineral yellow, Naples yellow. White Cremintz white, flake white, pearl white. Red. Red lead, purple red, iodine scarlet. Green Verdigris, Scheele's green, emer...
-Plain Oil Painting
The processes of plain oil painting are in themselves extremely simple, and depend so much on manipulative skill that a description of them must be taken only as a general guide, not by any means suff...
-Priming
The first process of painting is called priming, which consists of laying on a coat of paint for the special purpose of diminishing the absorbent quality of the wood or plaster. The paint used for thi...
-Flatting
When the work is to be flatted, that is, when it is desired that the paint when dry should present a flat or dull appearance without any gloss, the paint used for the previous coat should be rather th...
-Painting Plaster
The first coat is composed of white lead mixed with linseed oil and a small quantity of litharge, the paint being rather thinner than would be used for general purposes, in order that it may soak well...
-Painting New Walls Or Stucco
It does not appear that any painting in oil can be done to any good or serviceable effect in stucco, unless not merely the surface is dry, but the walls have been erected a sufficient time to permit t...
-Poor Tools
It is false economy to work with poor or cheap crushes. A good painter can not do good work, or the amount of work he should, with poor tools. Time is money and time is lost by trying to paint with...
-How to Prime
This is the most important paint coat applied to any surface. It must fill and satisfy the surface and leave a foundation upon which future paint coats can be successfully built. It holds the same rel...
-Scene Painting
When purchasing any burlaps to paint the scenery on, confine the selection to a good article, which should not be too thick, and should be of a close texture, evenly woven and light. The stoutness sho...
-Colors
White Procure the best gilders' whiting, as it is well washed and has more body than common whiting, and less lime. It is sold in large lumps and only requires to be broken up and plunged into as m...
-Mixing Colors
The most difficult feature of painting in distemper is that the colors dry so much lighter than they are when first put on, and many of them have, by gaslight, an entirely different appearance than th...
-Medium For Binding Distemper Colors
Size is sold in firkins or by weight. That called best double is to be preferred and when melted must be mixed with water in the proportion of one pint of size to four pints of water to make what is c...
-How To Prepare The Canvas
If the dimensions of the canvas do not exceed that of the frame, strain it and nail it on with 1 1/2 or 2-inch clout nails, about four inches apart from each other, taking care that the threads of the...
-Sign Painting
Before giving some specimens of letters especially adapted for sign writing, it should be impressed on the sign-painter that all eccentricity in the forms of the letters is for the purpose quite out o...
-Sign Painting. Part 2
Runic letters possess much of the lightness and elegance of the Roman, whilst at the same time, owing to the greater equalization of the thickness of the lines, they are bolder, and may be used with b...
-Sign Painting. Part 3
Fig. 82 is an example of Rustic character, well adapted for the name or inscription of a horticulturist or somewhat similar trade. In order to elevate the art, the sign-painter should be prepared to s...
-Stains
Mordants are chemical preparations, the effect of which is to fix and enhance the colors given by stains and dye-stuffs. Spirits of niter is used for the satin-wood stain, a strong solution of oxalic ...
-Mahogany Stains
2 ounces Dragon's-blood dissolved in a quart of rectified spirits of wine, shake frequently during process of dissolution. Dark In 1 gallon of water boil 1/2 pound of madder and 2 ounces of logw...
-Logwood Stain
The tree producing this dye-wood is a native of Yucatan in South America, the principal town of which, Campeachy, situated on the river San Francisco in the bay of Campeachy, was formerly the mart for...
-Rosewood Stain
In 3 pints of water boil 1/2 pound of logwood until the decoction is of a dark red color, then add 1/2 ounce of salts of tartar. The wood is to receive three or four coats of this liquid, which must b...
-Red Sandalwood Stain
This dye-wood is the produce of a large tree growing to the height of sixty or seventy feet on the mountains and other parts of India. It is usually imported in small billets two or three feet in leng...
-Black Stains
To 6 quarts of water add 1 pound of logwood and two or three handfuls of fresh walnut peelings. Let the whole boil well until reduced to about half the quantity of liquid, then strain and add a pint o...
-Brown Stain
Make a decoction by boiling 1 part of Catechu, Cutch, or Gambier in 30 parts of water, to which add a little soda. Apply this to the wood which is to be stained, and allow it to dry in the air. Make a...
-Walnut Stain
Boil 1 1/2 ounces of washing soda, bichromate of potash 1/4 ounce, in 1 quart of water, and add 2 1/2 ounces Vandyke brown. This stain may be used either hot or cold. ...
-Red Stains
Boil 1 pound of Brazil-wood in 1 gallon of water for three hours or more, add 1 ounce of pearlash, and apply it to the wood whilst hot, then brush over it a solution made of 2 ounces of alum in 1 quar...
-Oak Stain
Mix 2 ounces of potash and 2 ounces of pearl-ash in 1 quart of water, which will make an excellent stain. Should the color be darker than required, it may be diluted with water. It must be used very c...
-Ebonizing Stains
The woods best adapted for ebonizing are sycamore and chestnut, the work should be very well smoothed and rubbed with glass paper before staining, and should be finally rubbed with glass paper or clot...
-Gall-Nuts, Oak-Galls And Galls
Gall-nuts, oak-galls and galls are excrescences formed upon the young twigs of the various species of oak. Galls are also formed upon other plants, but the nut-galls of commerce are produced on the sp...
-The Practice Of Staining
The practice of staining light and inexpensive woods to the colors of more rich and costly varieties is a branch of graining, and the advantage of being able to get a permanent and decorative finish u...
-The Practice Of Matching
The purpose of this process, is, as its name implies, to make the different pieces of wood of which any piece of furniture is made up, match or correspond, so that they may be of a uniform color. It w...
-The Practice Of Darkening
The darkeners generally used are logwood, lime, brown, soft-soap, dyed oil, and various chemicals, such as aquafortis, sulphate of iron and nitrate of silver. An intelligent manipulation, however, of ...
-Stencilling
Some of the methods by which the embellishment of walls and ceilings can be achieved by means of stencilling are extremely simple, and their effectiveness when finished is far out of proportion to the...
-Turpentine
Turpentine does not burn the paint as many believe. Turpentine evaporates the slowest of any of the volatile paint solvents. It is used to give ease in working, form depth of penetration and assist in...
-Varnishes
It is not economical for painters to make these for themselves, as they may be purchased both cheaper and in most cases better than they could make them. At the same time it is well to know how to mak...
-Copal Varnish
Melt 8 parts of powdered copal gum in an iron pot by slow heat, and 2 parts balsam capivi previously warmed. Then remove from the fire, and add 10 parts spirits of turpentine, also warmed, in order to...
-Defects In Varnishes And Their Remedies
In applying oil varnishes to different objects, various defects often make their appearance, these are in many cases very obscure in their origin, although painfully obvious in their effects. The defe...
-Varnishing
Two grades of varnishes will usually be required by the painter, inside and outside. That which is used outside will cost a little more than that intended for the interior, as it must be made of mater...
-When To Varnish
It might appear that it is unimportant when varnish is applied so long as the work is inside, and is not exposed to showers of rain. As a matter of fact, varnish is the most susceptible material used ...
-Water Color Painting
It is difficult to give a list of the colors which are most serviceable for water color painting, but from a comparison of those employed by others, it would appear that the following twenty-four may ...
-Water Color Painting. Continued
Foregrounds Here all color should be more or less broken. Trees of which the foliage may be brilliant green have twigs and stems of leaves which are of a warm reddish brown, the local colors are th...
-When Not To Paint
There are certain times of the year when outside painting should not be done if satisfactory results are to be expected. If painting is done too early in the spring, the surface is very apt to be full...
-Practical Points On Painting
Do not expect the paint to do all the work. It won't. No paint manufacturer can make one paint which will meet every requirement. Judgment must he used as to the surface to be painted. Never ...
-Tacky Paint
This is more often caused through improper application of the undercoats than through any fault of the paint. Paint, varnish, or a similar product applied over a glossy surface or a surface which i...
-Paint Recipes
Paint For Iron The following are anticorrosive paints for iron: Take 10 per cent, of burnt magnesia, or even baryta or strontia, and mix it cold with ordinary linseed oil paint, and then enough min...
-Glue Recipes
How To Use Glue For glue to be properly effective it requires to penetrate the pores of the wood, and the more a body of glue penetrates the wood the more substantial the joint will remain. Glues t...
-Marble Recipes
How To Clean White Marble Mix together 1/2 pound of pearl-ash, 1/2 pound of soft soap, and 1 pound of whiting. Boil them until they become as thick as paste, and let the mixture cool. Before it is ...
-Wash Recipes
Durable Limewash For one barrel of color wash, 1/2 a bushel of white lime, 3 pecks of hydraulic cement, 10 pounds umber, 10 pounds ochre, 1 pound Venetian red, and 1/4 pound lamp-black. Slake the l...
-Glass Recipes
Transparent Paints For Glass Take for a blue pigment Prussian blue, for red crimson lake, for yellow Indian yellow, for brown burnt sienna, for black lamp-black, and for other shades a mixture of t...
-Cement Recipes
A Useful Cement Alum and plaster of Paris, mixed with water and used in the liquid state, form a hard composition and a useful cement. Cement For Marble Stir to a thick batter with silicate o...
-How To Remove Rust
How To Remove Rust A mixture of kerosene oil and emery powder rubbed on with a piece of cloth makes steel as bright as a button. But as prevention is better than cure, to prevent the formation of r...
-Varnish Recipes
Green Transparent Varnish Thin some copal varnish with turpentine, grind well together equal quantities of Chinese blue and chromate of potash, and mix them thoroughly with the diluted varnish. ...
-Putty Recipes
How To Soften Putty Slake some quick stone lime in water, and add one-third of the quantity of pearlash, make the mixture about the thickness of paint. Apply it with a brush to the putty on both si...
-Useful Information
Rotten Stone This is sometimes harsh and gritty, and the best way of trying it is to take a little between the teeth, when the least portion of grit may be detected. Careful workmen will always was...
-Useful Information. Part 2
Carver's Polish In 1 pint of spirits of wine dissolve 2 ounces of seedlac and 2 ounces of white resin. The principal use of this polish is for the carved parts of cabinet work, such as standards, p...
-Useful Information. Part 3
Gilding On Iron The following directions are for putting on japan and gilding on ironwork: The articles to be japanned are clean of oil, usually by the use of turpentine, and the japan varnish appl...
-Moulding Recipes
Moulding Composition A composition for making good some slight portion of a defective moulding is made of powdered whiting with glue in solution worked into a paste, with a sufficiency of turpentin...
-Enameling Recipes
Enamelling A Bath To remove the dirt and grease from a bath, make a strong lye of soda, say 2 pounds of soda to a pail of water, and well scrub it out with this. Then rub it well down with pumice-s...
-Filling Recipes
A very complete filling for open cracks in floors may be made by thoroughly soaking newspapers in a paste made of 1 pound of flour, 3 quarts of water, and a table-spoonful of alum, thoroughly boiled a...
-How To Make Size
Practically, size is merely glue so much diluted with water that it does not for a very long time harden in the mass, but preserves a jellified condition, and is thus sold in barrels. A better kind is...
-How To Clean Alabaster
Make a paste with quick-lime and water, spread this well over the discolored article, and leave it on for about twenty-four hours, then remove with soap and water, applying some friction on parts whic...
-How To Make Gold Size
Heat 1/2 pound linseed oil in a flask, and gradually add 2 ounces of powdered gum animi, stirring the oil continuously until the whole of the gum is dissolved. Continue boiling until the mixture becom...
-Marble, Jasper, Porphyry
To clean. Mix quick-lime with very strong soap-lees until the liquid is about the consistence of milk, paint it over the substance to be cleaned, and leave it on for twenty-four hours, after which it ...
-How To Remove Old Paint
Wet the place with naphtha, repeating as often as is required, but frequently one application will dissolve the paint. As soon as it is softened, rub the surface clean. Chloroform, mixed with a small ...
-How To Clean Painted Work
When painted wainscot or other wood requires cleaning, soft soap and fuller's earth should be applied with a flannel. The work should proceed from the top downwards, and the water should be prevented ...
-How To Make Putty
Pulverize the required quantity of whiting, which has been specially dried, and pass through a sieve of about forty-five holes to the square inch, mix the powder with as much raw linseed oil as will f...
-How To Get Rid Of Smell Of Paint
Place a vessel full of lighted charcoal in the middle of the room, and throw on it two or three handfuls of Juniper berries, shut the windows, the chimney, and the door, twenty-four hours afterwards t...
-Prevention Of Worm In Wood-Work
The ravages of worms and insects are among the principal causes of the destruction of timber. Some woods are more subject than others to be destroyed by them, such as alder, beech, birch, and in gener...
-Durable Colors
One of the necessary qualifications of the painter is the knowledge of the colors that will stand the sun and weather. The manufactured chemical colors are generally not very durable, and are therefor...
-Green Or Golden Color For Brass
The pleasing green or golden color generally to be found on the cheap and light brass articles of French manufacture can be easily produced at but trifling expense by the following means: 1 3/4 ounces...
-Harmonious Colors
A whole wall, ceiling, or other space should not be entirely covered over with rich ornament, and so also in a colored piece of drapery or other ornamental work, it is better to have some portion of i...
-Marbleizing Glass
One method of marbleizing glass consists in applying a mixture of varnish and oil to the surface of water of proper extent, and spraying or blowing upon the layer or film of oil and varnish dry colore...
-Metallizing Wood
A new method of treating wood, which gives it the appearance of a piece of shining polished metal, with a surface so hard and smooth as to be susceptible of a high polish, is as follows: The wood is f...
-Removing Spots From Ceilings
A very simple remedy for removing rain spots or such caused by water soaking through ceilings, has been employed with good results. Take unslaked white lime, dilute with alcohol, and paint the spots w...
-Restoring Antique Furniture
To restore to their original appearance antique pieces of furniture which have become unsightly on account of too frequent varnishing or besmearing by unskilled hands, the following method should be e...
-Sulphate Of Manganese
This is a pink-colored salt, useful, especially with zinc white, for exposure to sulphur gases. The following is the formula for its use: Sulphate of manganese 1 part, calcined sulphate of zinc 1 part...
-Taking Grease Out Of Boards
Pipeclay and water mixed together until they form a thick paste, and spread over the part where there is a stain, will take out the grease very soon. Other plans are to cover the part thickly with dry...
-Testing Plaster Of Paris
The method of testing the quality of plaster of Paris is by taking a small pinch of the powder between the finger and thumb and gently rubbing it, if small particles of it are felt, grit indicates tha...
-Useful Size
A useful preparatory size can be made by boiling a handful of the leaves of wormwood and two or three heads of garlic in a quart of water, until the liquid is reduced to one-half, then strain it throu...
-Writing On Glass
To write on glass, or, as it is properly termed, to etch, as the letters are eaten out by an acid, either liquid hydrofluoric acid or hydrofluoric acid gas is required, according to the effect desired...
-Books
To the many workmen who are purchasing the publications under the authorship of Fred T. Hodgson, and who we feel sure have been benefited by his excellent treatises on many Carpentry and Building subj...
-Books. Continued
The Signist's Book of Modern Alphabets Collected and Engraved by F Delamotte Large oblong octavo, 208 pages, 100 designs Price, $1.50 N. B. - We guarantee this book to be the largest...







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