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Bench Work In Wood | by W. F. M. Goss



Most of the illustrations presented with the following chapters are in the form of Mechanical Drawings. To the novice, these may appear confusing; but careful attention to some of the principles underlying their construction will enable him readily to interpret their meaning. A mechanical drawing, as distinguished from a perspective drawing, or picture, instead of giving all the characteristics of an object at a glance, presents them in detail, giving in one view one set of elements, in another view another set of elements, and so on, until the form of the object is accurately defined.

TitleBench Work In Wood
AuthorW. F. M. Goss
PublisherGinn And Company
Year1905
Copyright1905, W. F. M. Goss
AmazonBench Work In Wood

Bench Work In Wood

A Course Of Study And Practice Designed For The Use Of Schools And Colleges

By W. F. M. Goss, M.S., D.Eng. Dean Of The College Of Engineering, University Of Illinois, Urbana. Formerly Dean Of The Schools Of Engineering Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana.

-Preface
To avoid confusion, the subject herein treated is considered in three divisions. Part I. contains the essential facts concerning common bench tools for wood; it describes their action, explains their ...
-Introduction. Interpretation Of Mechanical Drawings
I. Most of the illustrations presented with the following chapters are in the form of Mechanical Drawings. To the novice, these may appear confusing; but careful attention to some of the principles un...
-4. Method Of Showing Parts Obscured From Sight
Method Of Showing Parts Obscured From Sight. The outline of details, which in any view of an object are hidden, is frequently shown by dotted lines. Thus, in Fig. 12, the general outline of the plan a...
-5. Sections
Sections. In complicated drawings, the use of dotted lines to indicate hidden parts is more confusing than helpful. In such cases it is customary to imagine the object cut, as if it were sawed asunde...
-6. Broken Drawings
Broken Drawings. To economize space in representations of simple objects, a portion of the drawing is sometimes omitted. In such cases, that which is given indicates the character of the omitted porti...
-7. Scale
Scale. Drawings are made either full-sized or to scale. A full-sized drawing is one in which every dimension agrees exactly with the similar dimension of the object it represents. A drawing to sca...
-8. Dimensions
Dimensions. The various dimensions of an object represented are shown on the drawing by appropriate figures, which express feet when followed by ', and inches when followed by . Thus 2' should be rea...
-9. Bench
Bench. A simple form of bench is shown by Fig. 24. Its length A may vary from 6' upwards, according to the length of work to be done. Its height B should also be regulated by the character of the work...
-14. Early Standards Of Length
Early Standards Of Length. To meet the earliest need of units of measure, it was natural to adopt the means nearest at hand, and common consent, no doubt, brought into use the pace, the forearm, or cu...
-16. The United States Standard Of Length
The United States Standard Of Length. The standard yard of Great Britain was lawful in the colonies before 1776. By the Constitution of the United States the Congress is charged with fixing the stand...
-20. The Board-Measure Table
The Board-Measure Table. Lumber is sold by the square foot, and the value of the table lies in its giving the area of a board, or of any surface, in square feet, when its length in feet and its breadt...
-28. Combining Measuring Appliances
Combining Measuring Appliances. To find the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle when the other two sides are known, use the rule and framing-square, as shown by Fig. 38. Suppose in Fig. 30 the lengt...
-29. Setting The Bevel
Setting The Bevel. To set the bevel at a miter (an angle of 450), place the beam against one leg of the square and adjust the blade so that it will agree with equal distances on both legs, as 4 and 4...
-30. To Set The Bevel At An Angle Of 60, And Of 120 Degrees
To Set The Bevel At An Angle Of , And Of Degrees. In Fig. 40 the board A has a jointed edge a; at any distance from a, gauge a line bc. From any point on bc, with any radius, use the dividers to stri...
-31. To Set The Bevel At Any Given Angle
To Set The Bevel At Any Given Angle. If an attempt is made to set the bevel directly from lines on paper, it will be found difficult to determine when the tool agrees with the drawing. It is better to...
-32. Marking-Gauges
Marking-Gauges. Fig. 42 shows the usual form of a marking-gauge. The steel point, or spur, e, should be filed to a narrow edge, so that it will make a sharp line. The graduations along the length o...
-45. The Action Of Cutting Wedges
The Action Of Cutting Wedges. Every cutting tool is a wedge more or less acute. In action it has two operations to perform: first, cutting the fibers of the wood; and, secondly, widening the cut in or...
-46. Angle Of Cutting Wedge In Chisel And Gouge
Angle Of Cutting Wedge In Chisel And Gouge. The acuteness of the angle cannot be defined in degrees since, being limited only by the strength of the steel, it must vary as the duty required of it vari...
-47. Grinding
Grinding. A new chisel, or one that has become considerably dull, must be ground. With the handle of the chisel in the right hand, and the fingers of the left hand resting on the blade near its cuttin...
-51. Set
Set. The thinning of the blade back from the cutting edge will not, in most cases, prevent the sides of the kerf from pressing against the saw. To meet this difficulty, the saw teeth are bent - one to...
-52. Size Of Saw Teeth
Size Of Saw Teeth. For proper action, each tooth should begin to cut when it enters the work, and continue cutting until it leaves the kerf, and, since the space in front of each tooth must contain th...
-53. Ripping-Saws And Cross-Cutting-Saws
Ripping-Saws And Cross-Cutting-Saws. A ripping-saw is one that is used in cutting with the grain of the wood, as on the line ab, Fig. 59. A cross-cutting-saw is intended for use at right angles to the...
-54. The Teeth Of Ripping-Saws
The Teeth Of Ripping-Saws. Fig. 60 shows a plan, elevation, and section of three teeth as they are usually made for a ripping-saw. The following paragraphs present a consideration of the action of an ...
-55. The Teeth Of Cross-Cutting-Saws
The Teeth Of Cross-Cutting-Saws. If a ripping-saw is used directly across the grain, the fibers of the material will be torn from each other without being properly cut; hence the necessity for a saw t...
-59. Saw Sets
Saw Sets. Fig. 75 shows a simple form of set. The tooth to be bent is placed on the surface A, with 1 Frequently called three-square saw file. the adjacent teeth in contact with B, B. Thus placed, ...
-62. Top-Jointing
Top-Jointing. With the saw clamped teeth up, joint it by running a file along the tops of the teeth, as shown by Fig. 80. This is done to bring all the teeth to the same height, and also to maintain t...
-63. Setting
Setting. Beginning at one end, bend outward every second tooth, then turn the saw and bend the remaining teeth toward the opposite side of the blade. In the case of the ripping-saw, if the swedge set ...
-64. Filing
Filing. It is of great importance that the saw be properly supported during the operation of filing. An unusual amount of noise shows that the blade is not properly clamped, or that the file is not be...
-65. Side-Jointing
Side-Jointing. Usually, when the filing is finished, the saw is ready for use, but it will cut more smoothly if it is jointed on the sides of the teeth. In Fig. 83, B is side-jointed, the surfaces pro...
-Planes And Plane-Like Tools
66. The plan and the section, Fig. 84, show a smooth-plane. The stock a, when of wood, is usually of beech. In it is an opening, or throat, b, which receives the iron c; this is held in place by the...
-72. The Cap
The Cap. A supplementary iron, or cap, shown by c, Fig. 92, is fastened to most plane-irons. Its use is well illustrated by the two sections, Figs. 93 and 94. The single iron will do smooth work as ...
-74. To Adjust The Iron
To Adjust The Iron. To set the iron deeper, so that a heavier cut may be taken, strike it a light blow, as indicated by the arrow e, Fig. 84. If a lighter cut is required, strike the stock as indicate...
-74. To Adjust The Iron. Continued
79. Block-Planes are small, and are intended for use chiefly on end grain. They generally have a single inverted iron, which turns the shaving on the bevel instead of on the face of the iron. They hav...
-87. Scrapers
Scrapers. Hand-scrapers are made of saw-plate - material of about the thickness of a panel-saw blade, and having the same degree of hardness. They are usually rectangular, and about 4 X 5, but may b...
-88. Augers
Augers. Fig. 110 shows a double-twist spur auger, a form generally used by carpenters. They are made in sizes varying from 1/2 to 4 (in diameter), but are not much used below 1. The spur A, Fig. 11...
-89. Auger-Bits
Auger-Bits. The auger-bit most in use is shown by Fig. 114. It is sold in sets of thirteen bits each, varying in size by sixteenths, from 1/4 to 1. Each bit is marked by a small figure on the shank,...
-93. Small Bits
Small Bits. Bits for boring holes less than 1/4 in diameter are of many forms, but by far the most satisfactory is the quill bit shown by Fig. 117. It has no delicate parts; if carefully handled it...
-94. Bit-Braces
Bit-Braces. The well-made wooden brace, which for a long time ornamented the walls of the cabinet-maker's shop, has disappeared, and the lighter and more convenient iron brace is used in its stead. A ...
-96. Automatic Boring Tool
Automatic Boring Tool. A convenient substitute for a brad-awl is represented by Fig. 122. The drill, or bit, A is held in a suitable chuck C, at the end of the bar D, which runs in B. The drill is bro...
-100. Hammers
Hammers. Fig. 127 shows a carpenter's hammer. The head A is wholly of steel. The face B is hardened so as not to be injured by repeated blows upon the nail, which is comparatively soft, but the idea p...
-102. Mallets
Mallets. The difference in effect between a blow given by a hammer and one given by a mallet is so great that, although similar in many respects, the two tools are adapted to widely different uses. A ...
-109. To True A Grindstone
To True A Grindstone. When a stone becomes untrue, or the outline of the face, which should be slightly convex, becomes concave, it may be corrected by using a piece of soft iron as a turning tool, th...
-111. Oilstones
Oilstones. The most useful of all oilstones are found near Hot Springs, Arkansas. They are divided into two classes, known to the trade as the Arkansas stone and the Washita stone. The former is of ve...
-113. Form Of Oilstones
Form Of Oilstones. It is evident that if oilstones could be made round, and mounted like grindstones, they could be used more effectively than when only a small block is available. The reason they are...
-Part II. Bench Work
116. No work at the bench (9-13) is more important than that relating to the location and production of lines. Carelessness or want of skill in this will always be manifest in the finished work. To th...
-117. Location Of Points (14-17)
Location Of Points (-). All measurements must begin somewhere. The greater the number of points from which to begin, the more chances there are for mistakes. Thus in measuring from E to F, Fig. 136, t...
-121. Spacing With Pencil And Rule (18)
Spacing With Pencil And Rule (). By use of pencil and rule, lay off points a, 1 apart along the whole 1 Fig. 137 is broken in accordance with the principles given in 6. length of the piece, the line ...
-122. Cross-Lining With Pencil And Framing-Square (1921)
Cross-Lining With Pencil And Framing-Square (). The points having been located, draw through each a line, as ab (Face A), using the framing-square and pencil. While a line is being produced by the ou...
-123. Chalk-Lining (36)
Chalk-Lining (). Lay off points on lines ab and ad 1/2 apart, the first point in each case being 1/4 from the working-face. Through the points thus located, chalk-lines are to be made, as shown by f...
-124. Lining With Pencil And Try-Square (22)
Lining With Pencil And Try-Square (). Hold the beam of the square firmly against the working-face, and, using the outside edge of the blade as a guide, continue across face B the lines on the working-...
-125. Lining With Pencil And Bevel (23-25)
Lining With Pencil And Bevel (-). The bevel is to be set at an angle of 45 degrees, and the lines ag, fg, etc., drawn from the points made by the intersection of the lines already drawn and the workin...
-127. Spacing By Use Of Scriber (37) And Rule
Spacing By Use Of Scriber () And Rule. Points and lines made with a pencil, while accurate enough for many purposes, are too inexact to define the proportions of different parts of a joint. Where good...
-128. Lining With Scriber And Try-Square
Lining With Scriber And Try-Square. Through the points already placed, scribe lines, as ab, cd, etc., with the try-square. Care must be taken that the advancing edge of the scriber is not turned out ...
-129. Lining With Scriber And Bevel
Lining With Scriber And Bevel. Set the bevel at an angle of 45 degrees and, using it as before, scribe lines from the try-square lines, as shown by bc, ad, etc. 130. Gauge-Lining (32-35). The gauge p...
-135. Handling The Saw
Handling The Saw. The saw should be grasped firmly with the right hand, a better control of it being secured by extending the forefinger along the side of the handle. In starting a cut, the side of th...
-136. To Guide The Saw
To Guide The Saw. If the saw tends to run off the line, the blade may be slightly twisted in the direction it ought to take, as shown by Fig. 152. It will immediately respond by a change in its course...
-146. Sand-Papering (103)
Sand-Papering (). The use of sand-paper should be confined to the removal of the minute fiber which is raised and left by the plane. This fiber is usually invisible, but its presence may be detected b...
-149. Nailing (254-256)
Nailing (-). The side and end pieces are to be nailed, as shown by Fig. 169, three 6-penny casing nails being used at each angle. When brought together, the pieces must be flush - pretty nearly right ...
-151. Setting Nails
Setting Nails. When the nail has been driven as nearly home as possible, set it until the head is at least 1/16 below the surface of the work. In applying the set, rest the little finger of the l...
-152. Withdrawing Nails
Withdrawing Nails. It sometimes happens that a nail, when partially driven, is found to be tending in a wrong direction, in which case it must be withdrawn. If the hammer, when used for this purpose, ...
-153. Fastening The Box Bottom
Fastening The Box Bottom. The side and end pieces of a box, when nailed together, may not be exactly rectangular, although each piece has the required length, and the fastening cannot be depended on t...
-Finishing The Box
With the smooth-plane take a light cut all over the outside, keeping the sides and ends square with the bottom and with each other. The ends of the box, where the end grain of the bottom and side piec...
-161. Toeing' Nails
Toeing' Nails. The advantage to be derived from toeing a nail lies in the fact that it always draws in the direction in which it is driven. If driven as shown by a, Fig. 185, it will draw A upon B b...
-165. Cutting The Mortise
Cutting The Mortise. It will be remembered that the lines which appear on face B, Fig. 190, have their counterparts on the opposite face D. To cut the mortise, select a chisel having a width as nearly...
-167. To Make A Pin (249)
To Make A Pin (). Select a piece of straight-grained material, in this case 4 or 5 long, and, by use of the chisel, reduce it in section to a square whose side is slightly greater than the diameter ...
-167. To Make A Pin (249). Part 2
Fig. 198 Scale. 3=1' Elevation (Face A.) End. End. Elevation (Face C.). 172. The joint ought to go together by light driving, and be perfectly square on the inside between the working-faces. ...
-167. To Make A Pin (249). Part 3
Fig. 206 Scale, 3 - l' Elevation (Face A.). End. Elevation (Face A.). End. 1 No dimensions are given for locating the lines similar to op, X, Fig. 206. They can be found by measuring the...
-167. To Make A Pin (249). Part 4
183. Brad-awls are useful in preparing the way for small screws. The cutting edge should always be placed across the grain so that the fibers will be cut, and not simply pressed apart to close up ...
-Part III. Elements Of Wood Construction Carpentry
188. It is the work of the carpenter to raise and inclose the frame of a building, to construct its floors and roofs, and to complete all parts which give stability to the structure; the joiner makes ...
-Part III. Elements Of Wood Construction Carpentry. Continued
193. A Fished Joint in its simplest form is shown by Fig. 225, and is so called because of the two pieces marked A which are known as fish-pieces or fish-plates. Fig.224 Fig.225 Fish-pieces ...
-201. Notching
Notching. In placing several timbers upon another which is to support them, in the manner represented by Fig. 239, it is usually desired that the tops of the supported timbers be uniform in height. Th...
-203. Mortise-And-Tenon Joints
Mortise-And-Tenon Joints. A tenon is a projection made on the end of a timber to form part of a joint; a mortise is an opening intended to receive a tenon. In Fig. 243, T is the tenon; M, the mortise;...
-Joinery
211. The work of the joiner, unlike that of the carpenter, is usually where it must bear the test of close examination. It is, therefore, necessary that the several pieces of which a whole work is ...
-212. Beads
Beads. A single-quirked bead is shown by Fig. 259, a being the quirk; a double-quirked bead is shown by Fig. 260, and a staff, or angle, bead by Fig. 261. The term reeding is applied to a succession o...
-224. Cleating
Cleating. A cleat is a piece of material fastened across the width of a board to prevent its warping; if the surface is composed of several pieces, the cleat is also designed to hold them together. It...
-228. Butt Joints
Butt Joints. A plain joint of this kind is represented by Fig. 278. The joint may be concealed by a bead, as indicated by dotted lines; and when the material is thick and it is desirable to prevent an...
-229. Miter Joint
Miter Joint. Fig. 282 shows a plain miter joint. Its sole recommendation lies in the fact that it exposes no end grain, for, from a mechanical point of view, it is weak and faulty, - weak because diff...
-Fastenings
241. Pins are employed principally as a means of holding tenons in mortises. In carpentry one pin, generally, is used in each joint, its diameter varying from one-sixth to one-fourth the width of the ...
-242. Wedges
Wedges. The most common use of wedges is illustrated by Fig. 213 in connection with Exercise No. 14, which requires wedges to be dipped in glue and driven between the tenon and the ends of the mortise...
-Gluing
When ready for use, the glue should be hot and of the consistency of thin sirup. It must be applied with a brush, in a thin, uniform coating, to both surfaces that are to be joined, and must be well b...
-Part IV. Timber And Its Preparation For Use Timber
252. Timber is that portion of the woody material of trees which is serviceable for carpentry and joinery. If the trunks of timber-bearing trees are cut into sections, they are found to be composed ...
-Part IV. Timber And Its Preparation For Use Timber. Continued
Fig. 305 Woods are hard, soft, light, heavy, tough, porous, and elastic, according to the kind and size of the cells and the deposits in the cell walls. They are also easy or hard to work in prop...
-256. Classification Of Trees
Classification Of Trees. There are in the United States nearly four hundred distinct species of trees, but the greater part of all the wood used in construction is taken from a comparatively small num...
-260. Oak (Quercus)
Oak (Quercus). The oaks, of which there are in all more than forty varieties, produce woods which are exceedingly variable, but they are usually heavy, hard, tough, porous, very strong, and of coarse ...
-269. Ash (Fraxinus)
Ash (Fraxinus). This wood occupies a place in commerce next in importance to that of oak. In fact, ash and oak resemble each other in that there are bands of porous spring wood in both, though the med...
-277. Bull Pine (Pinus Ponderosa Douglas)
Bull Pine (Pinus Ponderosa Douglas). This species of pine is distinct from the other yellow pines in that it is a product of the western part of the United States, being found from the Rocky Mountains...
-Logging
287. Felling Timber1 should always, if possible, be practiced at the period of maturity; if earlier, the wood will not have acquired its greatest strength and density, and will 1 Quotation marks ...
-290. The Process Of Sawing
The Process Of Sawing. The log is drawn from the mill pond by means of a carrier, or log jack, operated by the power of the mill. Arriving at the proper point, by suitable mechanism the log is rolled ...
-291. Milling
Milling. The processes of the sawmill are followed by those of the finishing mill, in which the rough-sawed lumber is planed to a smooth surface and is matched, beaded, or molded, to make it serviceab...
-292. Water In Timber
Water In Timber. As has been explained, wood is composed of cells of different forms and of different functions with reference to the life of the tree. These contain more or less water, which may occu...
-292. Water In Timber. Continued
298. Kilns, of which there are many forms, are large structures fitted with machinery for circulating dry, hot air about the lumber that is placed in them. The lumber is piled upon light trucks, ...
-304. Creosoting
Creosoting. The apparatus employed consists of one or more heavy metallic cylinders having end doors which open to the full size of the cross-section of the cylinder, and which are made to close steam...
-Strength Of Timber
305. The Strength of Timber is measured by its resistance to yielding under the influence of external force applied in any form. Timbers may be so located with reference to the load they sustain as ...
-308. Strength In Shear
Strength In Shear. A pin which holds a tenon in its mortise (Fig. 191) must resist shear when a force is applied to draw the tenon out of the mortise. Similarly, that portion of the tenon which is imm...
-Books
The Stickney Readers By J. H. Stickney. A Series of attractive, well-graded, and thoroughly tested reading books, combining in an unusual degree exceptional literary merit and marked originality wit...







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