The Mallet (Fig. 76) is made of hard, strong wood, preferably of figured beech. It is used for striking tools with wooden handles, because the hard hammer in such cases would not only do damage, but would not serve the purpose so well.

The Hammer (Fig. 77) consists of a piece of steel with a hole for the handle, called the eye. One end is cylindrical and terminates in a flat surface, called the face; the other end, which is called the pane, is wedge-shaped, with a rounded edge. That the handle may be quite firm, the eye widens at the sides, and wedges driven hard into the end of the handle cause it to fill up the cavity entirely. Fig. 76. Mallet.

Fig. 77. Hammer. 1/4.

Fig. 77. Hammer. 1/4.

There are various kinds of pincers, but only those used in wood slojd need be named here. Pincers have two steel arms rivetted together. The rivet divides the arms into two unequal portions, the longer, or handles, and the shorter, or jaws.

The ordinary pincers have short, broad, sharply curved jaws, and are used to extract nails, etc.

The wire-cutter resembles the preceding, but is slighter in make, and its arms are curved and its jaws sharper. It is used to snap off pieces of wire, tin-tacks, etc. The jaws of the flat pliers are flat on the inner side, which is file-cut to enable them to take fast hold of small pieces of metal to be filed, bent, etc.

Fig. 78. Pincers. J.

Fig. 78. Pincers. J.

Fig. 79. Wire cutter. 1/3.

Fig. 79. Wire-cutter. 1/3.

Fig. 80. Flat jawed Pliers. 1/3.

Fig. 80. Flat-jawed Pliers. 1/3.

Fig. 81. Round jawed Pliers 1/3

Fig. 81. Round-jawed Pliers 1/3.

Fig. 83. Screwdriver.

Fig. 83. Screwdriver.

1/3

Fig. 82. Hand vice. 1/3.

Fig. 82. Hand-vice. 1/3.

In the round pliers the jaws are more or less conical in shape, for the bending of wire, etc.

The hand-vice is not so much employed in slojd-carpentry as in metal slbjd. Its chief use is to secure small pieces of metal for filing. It may be held in the hand, or, after the piece of metal has been made fast, it may itself be screwed into a hand-screw or to the bench, that both hands may be free for the work of filing.

Shape of the screwdriver.

The screwdriver is used for driving in screws, and is made of hard steel. At the end it is bevelled to a thick point, which varies from 1/64 -inch to 1/16-inch in thickness, depending on the size of the screw for which it is to be used.

The bevelled edges should be parallel, and the point should be as little as possible like a wedge in shape, but should lie flat in the slit of the nail> otherwise it will have a tendency to slip and become chipped.

a the point, full size, seen from the side.