The tools illustrated in Fig. 16 are as follows:-

(1) Centre Punch

Sometimes called a mitre punch. Used for marking work of all descriptions, also for dotting the place where holes have to be drilled for the centre of the drill to start in. Made of tool steel.

(2) The Engineer's Hammer head consists of three parts-the face, the eye, and the pane, pene, or peen. The shaft should be of hickory or ash, and fastened with a metal wedge driven in parallel with the length of the head. The shaft should be carefully fitted so that the oval of the shaft is true with the head; if it is otherwise it causes the student when using a chisel to miss the head of the chisel and hit his hand.

(3) Scriber

Made either of brass or steel-brass for use on iron and steel, steel for use on brass, copper, etc. Used for marking in.

(4) Outside Calipers

Used for measuring the outside diameters of bodies and for transferring sizes from the rule to articles in the round, or vice versa. Usually made of iron or steel and used largely in turning. There are many varities.

(5) Wing Compasses

Made of iron with hardened steel points. Used for geometrical setting out of all kinds.

(6) Scratch Card Or Card Wire Brush

Used for cleaning files bybrush-ing it on the file and in the same direction as the cut of the teeth. It consists of card wire tacked on a piece of wood shaped so that it is suitable for holding in the hand.

(7) An 8 in. Hand Bastard File.-Used for filing all kinds of flat surfaces and roughing down any metal. Sometimes called a safe edge flat file, as it has one edge without teeth, for use when filing shoulders.

(8) An 8 in. Half-round Bastard File.-Used for the preliminary roughing down of flat and curved surfaces for any metal.

(9) Hand Or Cold Chisel

Used for cutting all kinds of metals in a cold state in contradistinction to a hot hand chisel that is used for cutting metals in a hot state. For this purpose it would be 3 in. longer and thinner at cutting edge. Made of tool steel.

(10) Soldering Iron

Or sometimes called a copper bit. Used for all kinds of soft soldering. Handle usually of wood, rein of wrought iron, bit of wrought copper. Made in various sizes and shapes; 1-2 1/2 lb. are the most useful weights.

(11) Tinman's Gas Stove

Used by a tinman when soft soldering, so that one iron can be getting hot while the other is being used. Stove made of cast iron.

(12) Lancashire Hack Saw

Used only for soft metals, such as brass, copper, etc. Frame of wrought iron, blade 12 in. long, and thick on edge where teeth are, thin at the back, tempered so that it can be filed; no set to

Fig. 16. Metalworker's tools.

Fig. 16.-Metalworker's tools.

Description of Fig. 16 (continued). teeth. Should not be used for steel or iron. Teeth 8 or 10 to the inch. Should be held as shown in Fig. 17.