The tools illustrated in Fig. 19 are some of those that are used in the forging of metals.

Fig. 19. Smith's tools.

Fig. 19.-Smith's tools.

Description of Fig. 19 {continued).

The first few numbers show some of the tongs in general use, but there is a large number of different shapes which are generally made to fit the work in hand or are altered to fit, as unless the tongs fit the work so that it is held securely, and in the proper manner, an accident is likely to occur. Forge tongs are made of wrought iron and of all sizes.

(1) Open-Mouthed Tongs

Used for holding medium-sized pieces of round or square iron. Sometimes called flat bills.

(2) Close-Mouthed Tongs

Used for holding small sizes of round or square iron. Sometimes called flat bills.

(3) Hollow-bit TongS--Used for holding round iron. Sometimes called round bits.

(4) Rivet Tongs

Used for holding rivets or small round iron at right angles to tongs. Sometimes called ring tongs.

(5) Bolt Tongs

For holding bolts or similar work. The hollow at back of jaw allows the head to clear the tongs. Also used for holding flat iron to bend it edgewise.

(6) Bolt Tongs

Another form of (5).

(7) Pick-Up Tongs

For picking up work of irregular shape. Sometimes called mandrel tongs.

(8) Bent-Bit Tongs

For holding iron parallel to tongs. Sometimes called side tongs.

Tongs for holding flat iron are shown in Fig. 20 (8).

(9) Bottom Tool

For making mouldings. The iron, a little smaller than the width of the tool, is heated and placed in position and is driven into the tool by means of a flatter and sledge hammer.

(10) Bottom Swage Or Rounding Tool

Corresponds with the rodded top swage shown just above it. Used for making anything round, and they are made in various sizes.

(11) Bottom Swage

Of three different sizes, 1/4, 5/16, 3/8 in.; for rounding up small tenons or similar work.

(12) Bottom Fuller

Used in conjunction with (13) for putting hollows or necks in the work.

(13) Top Fuller

Used in conjunction with (12) as above.

(14) A Flatter

Used for bringing work to a smooth flat surface.

(15) Hot Sett

Used for cutting hot metal. It is much thinner than a cold sett and not tempered so hard, and has a sharper angle for cutting edge.

(16) A Set Hammer

Used for setting down square shoulders or similar work.

(17) A Cold Sett

Used for cutting cold metal. Is much thicker than a hot sett and tempered to a dark brown colour, and cutting angle is 6o°. Usually fitted with a withy twisted round chisel as shown in Ch. xiv, Fig. 5 (10), or has a hazel rod fitted into the eye as shown.

(18) A Square Drift Punch

Used for punching square holes.

Description of Fig. 19 (continued).