Fig. 6 (4) illustrates a Trying Plane, used for obtaining perfectly true surfaces, shooting joints, squaring ends upon a shooting board, in fact for practically every planing process that requires great truth and exactness. The length varies from 18-30 in., the former for junior use, and the latter size for special jointing work. Twenty-eight inches is the standard full size for general work. Double irons are used in both sizes-2 in. for the small size and 2 1/2 in. for the large one.

Description of Fig. 6 {continued).

The Jack Plane is illustrated in Fig. 6 (5). It is used for roughly planing material prior to the use of the trying plane. Length varies from 14.20 in. for handcraft and technical work respectively, with irons 2-2§ in. wide. Although gauged irons are recommended for all planes, some prefer the ordinary or tapered type.

Planes 133

Fig. 5.

A Smoothing Plane is shown in (10), and as the name indicates it is used for smoothing up surfaces after they have been prepared with a jack and trying plane. Width of iron varies from 1 3/4-2 1/4 in.; the smaller size is best suited to handcraft work, the student obtaining more control over a tool proportionate to his size. In all planes the pitch of the iron varies accordingly as it is intended for hard or soft wood; generally speaking, a low-pitched iron is best for young students.

Fig. 6. Miscellaneous woodworking tools.

Fig. 6.-Miscellaneous woodworking tools.

Description of Fig. 6 {continued).

(7) illustrates the Plough. The terms applied to this tool are (1) body or stock; (2) the skate, consisting of a steel fixed in the sole; (3) the fence, which regulates the margin of grooves; and (4) the stop. This is adjustable and is set by means of a screw; it is used to determine the depth of a groove.

(8) is the Rebate Plane. Made from 3/8-1 1/2 in. on sole, and as the name indicates is used for rebating. In addition to its ordinary uses, it may with advantage be used for shooting small veneers when a shoulder plane is inaccessible; it is then worked flat upon a small shooting board.

(9) is the Block Plane. Used by craftsmen for shooting end grain of material, general fitting, and mitres. The iron is fixed at a particularly low angle. It is usually used in conjunction with the mitre block (see Fig. 8 (8)).

Fig. 7. A double bench.

Fig. 7.-A double bench.

(12) is a Shoulder Plane. Made of malleable iron, and used for regulating end grain shoulders. This tool is almost indispensable when working veneers. It is then used on its side, and in conjunction with a shooting board. The cutting-iron is fixed at a low angle, and, as is also the case with the block plane, the bevel of the iron is placed uppermost.

An Old Woman's Tooth is illustrated in (8), consisting of a block of wood with a plough-iron wedged in position, the cutting part projecting beyond the sole, and used chiefly for regulating the depth of grooves cut across the grain, after the end has been roughly removed with a chisel.

An Iron Spokeshave is shown in (11). Useful for fine work, especially in hardwood. The English pattern spokeshave, see Fig. 6 (13), is made flat or curved in section, as is also the American pattern, suited respectively for concave and convex edges or surfaces. The English types are made in box, lance, and beech wood.

(14) illustrates an Iron Rule. Such rules may be obtained up to 3 ft. long divided with English and metric measures.

(2) illustrates a beechwood Mallet, made in various sizes, and (3) is a combined marking and striking knife made of hard steel.

Saws are divided into a number of classes according to their design and system of teeth (Fig. 8).

A Hand Saw is illustrated in Fig. 8 (9). The rip saw of similar shape is properly called a Half-rip Saw, length 28 in., teeth spaced 1/4 in. apart, and is used for heavy cutting or "ripping"up stuff. The Hand Saw ranges from 20-26 in. in length, the blade of steel, teeth 6 1/2 to the in. and 1/8 in. deep.

Panel Saws are rather smaller in size and the teeth are also closer together. The length ranges from 16-26 in. They are especially suitable for young handcraft students for cross cutting and general use. The American Disston saws are of specially good quality, and their being made with a blade slightly tapering in cross-section, reduces the necessity for much "set"upon the teeth.

A Tenon Saw is illustrated in (7). Made with iron or brass backs, according to quality. The thickness of the blades and the spacing of the teeth vary. The blade is held tightly by the metal back, and, as also with dovetail saws, the process of fixing them is as follows: The back is bent slightly in its length and is then closed over the handle end of the blade. The remainder of the blade is then pressed into position, and the back is then sprung straight and closed over the steel. The natural tendency for the back to spring back into a curved shape holds the blade rigid and in constant tension. The use of this saw is restricted to light cross cutting and for wide shoulders. It is not used for tenons as the name seems to imply. Disston shoulder saws range from 12-18 in., and are excellent substitutes for the former in educational work; the teeth are smaller and they are not unwieldy.

A Dovetail Saw is similar in shape to the tenon saw, but with an open handle. Lengths vary from 6-10 in. with teeth spaced 15 per inch. They are used for cutting dovetails, small tenon cutting, and cross-grained grooves.

(2) shows a Bow Saw, so named because of its construction with bowstring tension attachment. The frames are made of beech or box wood with separate handles, and the blades range in length from 8-16 in.; teeth spaced approximately 12 to the inch; width of blade about 1/4 in. They are used for general curved cutting, such as circles or shaped brackets.

(4) is sometimes called a Compass Saw. It is however generally known as a Keyhole Saw from its particular use. It is only used for cutting away material inaccessible to the bow saw.

(1) shows a small frame or Fret Saw; the best pattern for cutting thin metals, mother of pearl, veneers, or fretwood, and thin material generally. Fret saws are used with the frame; to be obtained in packets of one dozen in varying degrees of fineness. If a saw breaks off, the thumbscrew can be slackened and the opening of the frame contracted, when a broken saw can be fastened in again.

Description of Fig. 8 {continued).

(3) illustrates one type of Mitre Cut. Used when cutting butt or mitre joints in mouldings, etc. It is of beech and can be made as a class model.

(5) shows an Adjustable Bevel. Used for setting out oblique shoulders and angles and testing bevelled edges. The stocks are made of rosewood and ebony with a dotted adjustable steel blade.

(6) shows a Hand Drill for boring hard woods and thin metals. Drills may be obtained with a screw attachment in the handle, which when screwed off discloses a small receptable used for storing the drills. This instrument is especially useful for boring simple patterns in wood for inlaying in wax or other material.

A Mitre Block is shown in (8) with a piece of moulding in position ready for planing. The metal screw action illustrated is much better and quicker to operate than the wooden screw type. These mitre blocks are prepared to shoot wood at angles of 90°, 450, and 77 1/2°, square or butt, mitre and half mitres respectively.

A Block Plane (12). Is designed specially for use with the latter.

Oilstones (10) of various varieties are as follows: (1) Washita, a good stone for general use. The cutting qualities vary, and can be judged best by rubbing the thumb-nail along the surface, comparing the relative grip with stones of differing quality. (2) Indian oilstones are rather more expensive than washita. They are excellent cutting stones, rapid sharpeners, and impart a keen edge. (3) Charnley Forest, a close-grained stone. (4) Turkey oilstones, excellent cutters, lasting, and sharpeners, rather more expensive than the above varieties. (5)"Arkansasan expensive kind, excellent for surgeons' and dentists' instruments and other fine tools. It is composed of pure silica, crystallized similarly to the washita stone, has a perfectly smooth surface, and yields only to the cutting of a diamond when being trued up; this stone is very expensive.

Slips (13), may be obtained of various sections. Suitable for sharpening gouges and shaped plane-irons in any of the preceding kind of oilstones.

Pincers (14), do not demand a detailed explanation here, being a tool familiar to all.

(15) shows a Twist Gimlet. Used for boring holes to receive screws.

(11), a London pattern Hammer.

(12), a Set Mitre for setting out mitred work.

(17), a Bradawl, which when being used should have the cutting edge of the blade placed across the grain, thus avoiding the splitting of the wood fibres.

(18), a Screwdriver.

Fig. 8 (19, 20), a Rasp and File respectively for wood. To be obtained in varying degrees of coarseness. The latter cut specially for use with wood.

Fig. 8. Saws and various other woodworking tools.

Fig. 8.-Saws and various other woodworking tools.