Roof Framing. The problem of framing the various members of a roof is not a difficult one provided the underlying principles are understood, and dependence placed upon this understanding rather than upon mere knowledge of what figures to use upon the square to get the cuts, without knowing why those figures are used. An effort will be made in this treatment to indicate the "why."

Fig. 39. Roof Types.

In Fig. 39 are illustrated four types of roof. Figs. 40, 41, and 42 illustrate the rafter forms and the names of the various cuts to be made in framing the members to place. The common rafter, it will be seen, has three cuts - plumb or ridge cut, seat or heel or plate cut, and end cut. The hip, valley, and jack have four cuts each; a side cut or cheek cut is possessed by each in addition to the three cuts belonging to the common rafter.

Before any rafter can be framed, the rise and run of the common rafter, in other words, the pitch of the roof, must be known.

In roof framing, the "run" of a rafter when in place is the horizontal distance measured from the extreme end of the seat to a point directly below the ridge end of the rafter, Fig. 43. The

Fig. 40. Roof Details.

Fig. 41. Plan of Roof Rafters.

"rise" is the vertical distance from the ridge end of the rafter to the level of the seat. The "pitch" of a roof or rafter is the ratio of the rise of the rafter to the span or whole width of the building.

The terms rise, run, and rafter length have still another set of meanings - they may be used to designate "unit" lengths. In all such cases 12" of run of the common rafter is assumed as the base, and the other unit lengths or constants are computed from this constant. The numerical values of these constants will be computed as the development of the subject of roof framing makes their use necessarv.

Fig. 42. Raising the Rafters.

It will be noted in Fig. 44 that the constant of run, or 12", is taken along the tongue and the rise per foot of run along the blade of the square. It is not essential that this order be followed; the beginner will generally find it easier to visualize his work, however, if he keeps the tongue for either rise or run, and the blade for the opposite. There are occasions when the reverse order is necessary no matter which form is followed, so that it is unwise to insist upon only one way.

The variation in terminology in roof framing is so general that the beginner will do well to familiarize himself with the most common. Hereafter an effort will be made to confine the text to the following: plumb cut, seat cut, end cut, side cut.

Fig. 43. Run, Rise and Length.

Fig. 44. Unit Length of Common Rafter.

The value to a beginner of a carefully made plan of a roof to be framed with necessary data such as rafter lengths and positions indicated thereon, cannot be too strongly emphasized. Architects not infrequently prepare elaborate and complete framing plans for the use of the carpenter. Upon intricate plans, experienced mep prepare plans before attempting to frame the same. Fig. 41 illustrates a framing plan ready for the placing thereon of the necessary data, such as measurements along the plate for spacing the rafters, lengths of rafters, ridge pieces, etc.