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Carpentry | by Ira Samuel Griffith



It is the author's hope that the following text may be of service to apprentices to the trade, to vocational and trade school students, and to manual training students. The author's experience as a carpenter leads him to feel that not a few journeyman carpenters may find their horizon widened and their usefulness as framers of the unusual roof increased by a study of Chapter IV where an effort has been made to indicate how the principles involved in framing the square and octagonal roof may be "generalized" so as to make possible their application to roofs of any number of sides. Beyond this, the book makes claims to being nothing more than an elementary treatise of the essentials of carpentry.

TitleCarpentry
AuthorIra Samuel Griffith
PublisherThe Manual Arts Press
Year1919
Copyright1916, Ira Samuel Griffith
AmazonCarpentry

By Ira Samuel Griffith, Chairman of the Manual Arts Department University of Missouri

Fourth Edition

-Acknowledgments
To my father, whose patient instruction and forbearing oversight during the period of carpentry apprenticeship has made possible the practical aspect of this present volume, grateful acknowledgment is...
-Preface
IT is the author's hope that the following text may be of service to apprentices to the trade, to vocational and trade school students, and to manual training students. The author's experience as a ca...
-Chapter I. Foundations. 1. Laying Out Foundations
Laying Out Foundations. In most communities it is customary for the carpenter to be present and to assist the mason in the laying out of the foundations. Where buildings are large and important, this ...
-2. Grade Line
Grade Line. A properly drawn set of plans will show both the present lay of the ground upon which the building is to be erected and the new grade line which is to be established after the building is ...
-3. Excavations
Excavations. Excavations should be made enough larger than the proposed foundation that the mason may have room to wield his trowel in pointing the outer joints, and for waterproofing. An extra foot o...
-4. Foundations; Footings
Foundations; Footings. Because of the tendency of a building to settle unevenly, due to variations in the strength of the supporting ground or the unequal weight placed upon this ground, foundations m...
-5. Foundation Materials; Construction
Foundation Materials; Construction. Of the materials commonly used in the construction of foundations monolithic concrete is becoming the most common for that part of the wall which lies below the gro...
-6. Forms For Concrete Walls
Forms For Concrete Walls. The economical building of forms for concrete walls is a matter of importance in building construction. Fig. 12 shows a type of form suitable for foundation work. Such forms ...
-7. Waterproofing
Waterproofing. The extent to which a wall should be waterproofed will depend upon the location of the building. Foundations near running water must naturally be better protected than those in well dra...
-8. Basement Frames
Basement Frames. Fig. 13 illustrates one successful form of basement window frame construction, with sash. In this type the sash is hinged to the top of the frame, and a catch or button at the bottom ...
-Chapter II. Main Frame. 9. Methods Of Framing The Superstructure
Methods Of Framing The Superstructure. In the early days when lumber was plentiful, houses and barns were framed in what is known as full frame. Such frames consisted of heavy and solid timbers mort...
-10. Sills And Girders
Sills And Girders. In Fig. 21 will be found illustrated three types of box sill construction. Whatever the sill used, care must be taken to so plan that mice may not have free access to the various pa...
-11. Bridging
Bridging. To add to the carrying power of floor joists, bridging is cut in between them as shown in Fig. 23. For ordinary dwellings lx 3 stock will serve. On large work, stock two inches thick shoul...
-12. Trimmers And Headers
Trimmers And Headers. In the making of stair and chimney openings it becomes necessary to support the ends of joists other than in the usual manner. This is done by cutting in headers as in Figs. 25, ...
-13. Walls And Partitions; Joists And Rough Floors
Walls And Partitions; Joists And Rough Floors. A study of Figs. 16,17,18, 19, 20 and 29 should give an understanding of the essential members of the framed wall of a building, and their relations one ...
-14. Openings In Framework
Openings In Framework. Studs in outside walls are set without reference to openings for doors and windows. Such openings are cut and headers and stools placed after the walls are up and ready for shea...
-Chapter III. Roof Frame: Square Cornered Buildings. 15. Roof Framing
Roof Framing. The problem of framing the various members of a roof is not a difficult one provided the underlying principles are understood, and dependence placed upon this understanding rather than u...
-16. Framing The Common Rafter; Laying Out The Plumb Cut
Framing The Common Rafter; Laying Out The Plumb Cut. While in this discussion the plumb cut is first described, it should be understood that it is equally as convenient and more common among carpenter...
-17. To Find The Length Of A Common Rafter
To Find The Length Of A Common Rafter. First Method: The theoretic length of a rafter is indicated by the center lines in Figs. 45-a and 48. In estimating the total length of stock for a rafter having...
-18. Laying Off Common Rafter Seat Cut And End Cut
Laying Off Common Rafter Seat Cut And End Cut. First Method: Having determined the rafter length as directed in Sec. 17, first method, (1) lay off this length along the upper edge beginning at the plu...
-19. Ridge Piece
Ridge Piece. Roofs may be framed with or without a ridge piece. The use of a ridge piece makes the assembly or raising of a roof somewhat easier, especially a hip roof. Upon an ordinary dwelling a rid...
-20. Hip and Valley Rafters of Square Cornered Buildings
First Method: The line of measurement for length of a hip and valley rafter is along the middle of the back or top edge, as on common and jack rafters. The manner of determining the number to use on ...
-21. Laying Off Plumb Cut Of Hip Or Valley Rafter For Square Cornered Buildings
Laying Off Plumb Cut Of Hip Or Valley Rafter For Square Cornered Buildings. Assuming a position with reference to the rafter similar to that in framing the common rafter, lay off the plumb cut using 1...
-22. Side Or Cheek Cut Of Hip Or Valley Rafter
Side Or Cheek Cut Of Hip Or Valley Rafter. First Method: There are a number of ways to lay out a side cut on a square cornered building. The simplest to remember, where no framing tables are at hand, ...
-23. Determining Length Of Hip Or Valley Rafter
Determining Length Of Hip Or Valley Rafter. First Method: If a table of unit lengths of hip or valley per foot of run of common rafter is available, Fig. 60, the total rafter length may be determined ...
-24. Laying Off Seat And End Cut Of Hip Rafter For Square Cornered Building
Laying Off Seat And End Cut Of Hip Rafter For Square Cornered Building. The seat cut and end cut of a hip rafter will be laid off in a manner quite similar to that used in laying off the seat and end ...
-25. Reduction Of Hip Or Valley Rafter Length Because Of Ridge Piece
Reduction Of Hip Or Valley Rafter Length Because Of Ridge Piece. If a hip rafter of a square cornered building is to be framed against a ridge piece, Fig. 40, its length must be reduced correspondingl...
-26. Backing A Hip Rafter For Square Cornered Building
Backing A Hip Rafter For Square Cornered Building. First Method: Since the line of measurement of a hip rafter is along the center of the top edge, if the rafter is framed with the same plumb distance...
-27. Valley Rafters
Valley Rafters. As has been indicated in previous sections of the text, valley rafters have their lengths, plumb cuts, and seat cuts determined like hip rafters. There is one difference; the valley r...
-28. Framing The Jack Rafter For Square Cornered Buildings; Plumb Cut; Side Cut
Framing The Jack Rafter For Square Cornered Buildings; Plumb Cut; Side Cut. Jack rafters which have their top ends framed against a hip are known as hip jacks; those having the lower ends framed again...
-29. Lengths Of Jack Rafters For Square Cornered Roofs
Lengths Of Jack Rafters For Square Cornered Roofs. First Method: The framing table for common rafters and jack rafters, Fig. 49, may be made use of in determining lengths of jacks. To make use of this...
-Chapter IV. Roof Frame: Any Polygon. 30. Tangents; Miter Cuts Of The Plate
Tangents; Miter Cuts Of The Plate. Before the principles involved in the laying out of rafters on any type of roof can be understood, a clearer idea of the term tangent as used in roof framing must be...
-31. Octagonal Roofs
Octagonal Roofs. While the square cornered building is the most common, the octagon is frequently used in the form of a bay attached to the side of a house. The octagon is also common upon silos and t...
-32. Common Rafter For Plate Of Any Number Of Sides
Common Rafter For Plate Of Any Number Of Sides. By referring to Figs. 68 and 72 it will be seen that common rafters have for their runs the apothem of the polygon made by the plate, represented in Fig...
-33. Hip And Valley Rafters For Octagonal And Other Polygons
Hip And Valley Rafters For Octagonal And Other Polygons. Before the table of constants for hips and valleys for octagonal and other polygonal roofs can be formed, it is necessary to determine the tang...
-34. Plumb Cut Of Octagonal And Other Polygonal Hips And Valleys
Plumb Cut Of Octagonal And Other Polygonal Hips And Valleys. The run of an octagonal hip or valley is 12.99 for each foot of run of common rafter. For practical purposes this is con- Fig. 72. Run...
-35. Side Or Cheek Cuts Of Hip And Valley Rafters For Roofs Of Any Number Of Sides
Side Or Cheek Cuts Of Hip And Valley Rafters For Roofs Of Any Number Of Sides. Fig. 74 illustrates the principles involved and method used in determining side cuts whatsoever the pitch and number of s...
-36. Rafter Lengths Of Octagonal And Other Polygonal Hips And Valleys
Rafter Lengths Of Octagonal And Other Polygonal Hips And Valleys. First Method: Knowing the run of a hip or valley for the polygon under consideration (17 for the square, 13 for the octagon, etc.), ...
-37. Reductions In Lengths For King-Post
Reductions In Lengths For King-Post. Suitable reduction must be made for king-post, should there be one, Fig. 76, or for rafter thicknesses should no king-post be used, Fig. 75-b. Where a king-post is...
-38. Seat And End Cut Of Octagonal And Other Polygonal Hips And Valleys
Seat And End Cut Of Octagonal And Other Polygonal Hips And Valleys. The method of procedure in laying out the seat and end cuts of octagonal and other polygonal hips and valleys is similar to that des...
-39. Backing Octagonal And Other Hips
Backing Octagonal And Other Hips. The principle involved in determining the amount of backing on hip rafters for the octagon, as well as that of other polygons, is similar to that for backing hips for...
-40. Framing The Octagonal And Other Polygonal Jacks
Framing The Octagonal And Other Polygonal Jacks. Plumb cuts of jacks are determined by the rise and run of the common rafter of that particular roof. The seat cuts will be determined by the same numbe...
-41. Side Cut Of Octagonal And Other Polygonal Jacks
Side Cut Of Octagonal And Other Polygonal Jacks. First Method: The method described in Section 35 is applicable to jacks as well. Second Method: If a table of common rafter lengths per foot of run is...
-42. Lengths Of Octagonal And Other Polygonal Jacks
Lengths Of Octagonal And Other Polygonal Jacks. The methods of procedure in determining the lengths of jacks for other than square cornered buildings differs from that described for the square cornere...
-43. Framing By Means Of A Protractor
Framing By Means Of A Protractor. By means of a protractor used in connection with the columns containing degree measurements, Figs. 49, 60, and 73, roof framing may be greatly simplified. To lay off...
-44. Translating Framing Problems From Protractor To Framing Square And Vice Versa
Translating Framing Problems From Protractor To Framing Square And Vice Versa. Frequently it is desirable to translate framing problems from degrees to numbers to be used upon the steel square, and vi...
-45. Framing An Octagon Bay
Framing An Octagon Bay. Whatever may be one's opinion as to the propriety of the octagon bay architecturally, its very common use makes it obligatory upon the builder to know how to properly frame it....
-46. Framing A Roof Of One Pitch To Another Of Different Pitch
Framing A Roof Of One Pitch To Another Of Different Pitch. Occasionally one must frame a roof of one pitch against a roof of another pitch. To determine the cut, if the combination tool is to be used,...
-47. Framing A Roof Of Uneven Pitch
Framing A Roof Of Uneven Pitch. Not infrequently a roof must be framed in which several pitches are involved. All of the principles necessary for framing such a roof have been developed. It remains fo...
-48. Decks; Chimney Openings
Decks; Chimney Openings. Decks are sometimes used in roof framing to prevent some part of the roof from rising too high above the remainder. Such decks are framed of joist stock spiked together with b...
-Chapter V. Exterior Covering And Finish. 49. Sheathing Or Sheeting
Sheathing Or Sheeting. After the frame work of a building is erected and the openings made in the frame for windows and doors, the sheeting is to be placed. Sheeting is placed either horizontally acro...
-50. Scaffolding
Scaffolding. Cornice is placed after sheeting. To do this advantageously it is necessary to erect scaffolding or staging. Fig. 93 illustrates a common type. Stock 2x4 is used for the uprights, and ...
-51. Cornice
Cornice. Cornices are generally classified as open or skeleton, and box, Figs. 95 and 96. Each of these types will be found constructed in almost endless variety of forms. The illustrations shown will...
-52. Raked Mouldings
Raked Mouldings. In all cases where a moulding resting in one plane, as crown or bed moulding at the eaves, is to be membered with moulding swung up out of that plane, as up a gable, one of two things...
-53. Shingling
Shingling. The reason for placing cornice before base or window frames, etc., is to allow the workmen to work inside should inclement weather overtake building operations at any time. Shingling, there...
-54. Shingling Hips And Valleys; Flashing; Saddle Or Comb Boards
Shingling Hips And Valleys; Flashing; Saddle Or Comb Boards. Hip and valley shingles are usually sawed to shape before being taken to the roof, the face cut being the same as that used across the face...
-55. Finishing Exterior Walls
Finishing Exterior Walls. With the roof completed, side walls are next covered except where porches are to be attached. Fig. 110 illustrates the manner of constructing an exterior wall having a water...
-56. Setting Window And Door Frames
Setting Window And Door Frames. Two men usually work together in setting frames, as in fact they do on much other carpentry work. In setting door frames on outer walls (1) the rough floor, etc., must ...
-57. Siding
Siding. Preparatory to siding, a siding stick should be made. Such a stick is made by planing parallel edges upon a piece of inch stock about 1 inch in width. Upon this stick marks will be mad...
-Chapter VI. Interior Finish. 58. Lathing; Grounds
Lathing; Grounds. Lathing is usually considered a part of the plasterer's work but the carpenter is expected to prepare the grounds and place the necessary furrings. The success of the plasterer depen...
-59. Interior Walls
Interior Walls. Fig. 119 illustrates the construction of a corner of an interior wall which is to be recommended highly for strength. All door studding are to be doubled for strength, also window open...
-60. Stair Building; Porch Steps
Stair Building; Porch Steps. Stair building is an art in itself and as such belongs to millwork rather than to carpentry. However, the carpenter must know the principles of simple stair lay-out and co...
-61. Risers And Treads
Risers And Treads. Upon the common stair, such as attic and porch, etc., treads and risers are placed as in Fig. 120, being nailed to place, risers first and then treads. On porch steps and open stri...
-62. Porches
Porches. Fig. 127 illustrates the manner of framing the floor of a porch. Such framework should be given a pitch downward away from the house of about 1 in 10' that the water may be drained. Fig. 12...
-63. Interior Finish
Interior Finish. A part of the carpenter's duty is the placing of all interior finish, such as base boards, door jambs, etc. Formerly the carpenter made, or got out his trim by hand but today he fin...
-64. Setting Door Jambs
Setting Door Jambs. If the studs about interior door openings have been carefully selected for straightness and properly set or plumbed, the setting of the door jamb should be an easy matter, If this ...
-65. Fitting Window Sash
Fitting Window Sash. Sash are often fitted before the house is plastered and before the sash are glazed. (1) Joint the top and sides of the top sash, chamfering the arrises very slightly by a stroke o...
-66. Placing Door, Window, And Other Trim
Placing Door, Window, And Other Trim. In Fig. 110-a is shown one of the many styles of casing in common use. Base blocks and casing stock are prepared at the mill and the carpenter has but to cut thes...
-67. Hanging Doors
Hanging Doors. In the fitting of large doors, such as in dwellings, allowance must be made for subsequent coats of varnish or paint, usually a scant 1/16 is allowed at top and each side of a door. Th...
-68. Fitting A Door
Fitting A Door. The names of the parts of a door and their relative positions are indicated in Fig. 132. (1) Mark with a try-square and saw off the lugs, the parts of the stiles which project beyond t...
-69. Hinging A Door
Hinging A Door. The hinges most commonly used in carpentry are the kind known as butts. Where the door stands in a vertical position, hinges in which the two parts are joined by a loose pin are genera...
-70. Fitting Locks
Fitting Locks. Two types of lock are in common use upon dwelling doors, the rim and the mortise lock. The rim lock, Fig. 140, is used upon cheap construction and is attached to the outer surface of th...
-71. Laying And Scraping Floors
Laying And Scraping Floors. Quarter - sawed stock makes the best wearing floor. However, oak wears well in either plain or quarter-sawed forms. All hard wood finish floors are milled with tongues and ...
-72. Door And Window Frames
Door And Window Frames. Like other carpentry detail, window and door frames may be constructed in any one of a number of styles. Fig. 145 illustrates a satisfactory type of door frame for cottage use....
-73. Woodwork In Masonry Structures
Woodwork In Masonry Structures. Wood framing in brick and other masonry buildings is but slightly different from that wholly in wood. Fig. 147 illustrates the manner of framing the ends of joists whic...
-Chapter VII. Estimating. 74. Methods Of Estimating
Methods Of Estimating. Building costs may be divided into two main divisions, cost of material and cost of labor. There is but one so-called safe way to figure or estimate the cost of any particular p...
-75. Table For Estimating By Cubic-Foot Unit
Table For Estimating By Cubic-Foot Unit. The following table of unit prices will give a rough working estimate for various types of building differentiated after the custom of insurance adjusters. The...
-76. Grading Rules
Grading Rules. There is no uniformity as to grades of lumber. Fifteen or more associations have rules for inspection.and classification of lumber and these rules vary with the association and from yea...
-77. Estimating Lumber Quantities
Estimating Lumber Quantities. Lumber is measured in terms of the board foot as a unit, 12 by 12 by 1 or its equivalent, indicated by the abbreviation B. M. (board measure). Example: Determine the...
-78. Estimating Millwork Quantities
Estimating Millwork Quantities. The number of doors and windows will be determined by an actual count. Mouldings, casings, baseboard when moulded, window stools, etc., are sold by the 100 feet lineal...
-79. Example Of Form For Bill Of Materials
Example Of Form For Bill Of Materials. BILL Ticket or Catalog Number No. of Feet No. of Pieces Size Length Description Price Rate Extension...
-80. Estimating Labor Costs
Estimating Labor Costs. In estimating labor costs the following data is to be made use of. The estimator will have to determine the hours per day and the scale of wages per hour paid in his locality, ...
-81. Estimating Quantities Of Nails
Estimating Quantities Of Nails. The following table will enable one to estimate the quantity of nails required for the various kinds of common carpentry. The table of length and number of nails to the...
-82. Example Of Form For Carpentry Costs
Example Of Form For Carpentry Costs. The following form, used by a practical carpenter, and published in the Correspondence Department of The American Carpenter and Builder, should suggest means where...
-83. Total Building Costs By Percentages
Total Building Costs By Percentages. Having carefully estimated the costs of one or two of the large items in a building, such as lumber or millwork or labor, the total cost of a building may be appro...
-Appendix I. Natural Trigonometric Functions
Consider the angle DA E, Fig. 152. From any point on the line AD drop a line perpendicular to the side AE forming the right triangle ABC. Let a represent the value or length of the side B C; let b rep...
-Solutions Of Right Triangles
By the solution of right triangles is meant the finding of unknown sides or angles when values of other sides and angles are known. Example 1 Given A = 30 degrees, c = 24; Find B, a, b. Solution - ...
-Graphic Check
The graphic check which, it will be seen, might have been made use of as a graphic solution, consists in setting one square upon another with the angle of direction and the length of one side determin...
-Appendix II. Directions
An examination of the table of natural functions will indicate in the column at the left, angles of 0 degrees to and including 45 degrees, reading down. The column to the extreme right will be found t...
-Interpolation
Frequently one must find a functional value for fractional degrees, or degrees and minutes. Also, it becomes necessary to find the value of an angle with greater accuracy than even degrees, as given i...
-Appendix III. Useful Tables
Fractional Equivalents For Decimal Values Where rafter lengths are determined by multiplying unit lengths by the run, the answer will almost invariably result in a decimal. Such decimal values may...
-Appendix IV. Short Cuts to Roof Framing
Griffith's Framing Tables For The Square And Octagonal Roof Directions For Using Table For The Steel Square Fig. 70-a. Example. - Given a square hipped roof, that is, a roof with square corners, hav...
-Directions For Using Table For Protractor
Fig. 70-b. Example. - Given to frame an octagonal silo with a span of 21' and a roof pitch of 11 to the foot. 1. To Lay Out Miter Cut Of Plate To Lay Out Miter Cut Of Plate. (Cf. small table Fig. 7...
-Appendix V. Miscellaneous Estimating. Excavations
Excavations are estimated in terms of the cubic yard, 27 cubic feet. The price per yard will vary according to the nature of the soil. Where ground is not level, the plot should be divided into squar...
-Concrete
Concrete is estimated in terms of the cubic yard. The price will vary somewhat according to the mixture and the amount of form work required. Mixtures are designated as rich - 1 part cement, 2 par...
-Brickwork
The unit of measurement in brickwork is the 1000 bricks, ordinarily. To determine the number of bricks in a wall, multiply each square foot of surface by 7 (sometimes 7 is used) which is the average...
-Chimneys
One foot of chimney height will contain five courses of ordinary bricks. CHIMNEYS No. Flues Size of Flue Size of Chimney No. Bricks p...
-Slate Roof
Exposure of each slate will equal the length of a slate diminished by 3 (the usual amount of lap) divided by 2, multiplied by the width of the slate. To determine the number of slates required, divi...
-Plastering
Plastering is estimated by the square yard. In estimating the number of square yards, deduct the area of openings. The extra labor involved in working around grounds is thus allowed for. Strips of p...
-Painting
Painting is estimated by the square yard, no deductions being made for openings such as doors and windows. Railings, grills, etc., are figured as if solid. A gallon of paint will cover approximately ...
-Bibliography Of References
Chicago Millwork Supply Co.: Price Book and Specifications for Lumber and Millwork, Chicago. Gillette: Handbook of Cost Data, Myron C. Clark Co., New York. Gordon-Van Tine Co. : Price Book and Specif...







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