Material: Apple wood, hickory
All work turned on the lathe on centers is commenced in the same manner as in Exercises I and II. It will be unnecessary in this manual hereafter to repeat the preliminary operation for mounting the work on centers on the lathe, roughing down, etc.
In Fig. 43 is shown the working drawing. In procuring the stock have it a little longer than the finished exercise, and before commencing the work lay out your plan of procedure.
As the chisel handle is intended for a socket chisel, it would be advisable to have a chisel in which to fit the end, since all chisels are not of the same taper. If the chisel is not at hand, and the handle is to be used later, leave the live-center end on the handle, so that it can be replaced in the lathe and fitted into the chisel. The dead-center end will not be cut as in Exercises I and II, but this end of the piece will be the point to measure from.
The operation, after the piece is turned to a cylinder, will be understood from Fig. 44 A and Fig. 44 B. This is known as "sizing." Take the cut-off tool and size the several diameters, as shown in the illustration; then finish the outline of the handle with the gouge and chisel. Finish the work with sandpaper. In using sandpaper care should be taken not to cut away sharp corners. Hold the sandpaper (after folding it in a narrow strip) on the work by the index and middle fingers and keep it moving back and forth; the quicker the motion the better, as then no rings will be left in the work. Use No. 1 1/2 sandpaper at first, then No. 1/2 or No. 0. After the work is sandpapered sufficiently, apply a coat of shellac varnish, brushing it on while the lathe is at rest. Then take a dry cloth, start the lathe, and wipe off the surplus shellac. Care should be taken that the cloth does not stick and get wound on to the work. Fig. 45 illustrates the method of using the cloth.
Fig. 44 A.
Fig. 44 B.
This method of finishing gives fairly good results, but it is not intended to imply that this is the only method of finishing. Other methods will be given later.
DEAD CENTER END
When a number of handles are to be turned, time will be saved by making a templet such as is shown in Fig. 46. The several diameters are cut on one edge of a piece of thin sheet iron, and notches are filed on the other edge to locate the positions to be cut while sizing.