(Templet and Chucking Exercise)

Material: Whitewood, birch

From the illustration, Fig. 50, we see that there are two pieces to be turned for this article. The upright (Fig. 51), which is turned first, is mounted on the lathe on "centers." The cutting of this piece will be paring. In previous exercises the method of paring was explained for straight work; in this exercise there are convex and concave curves to be cut. The method of cutting concave curves will be understood from the illustration, Fig. 52. The necessary steps in working out this part of the exercise are shown in Fig. 53. To cut the concave curves, use the small gouge and cut, as shown in Fig. 5 2, which shows three positions. Make a clean, smooth cut. For the convex curve use the small skew chisel. (See Fig. 54, which shows the method of cutting.) It would be advisable for the student to practice cutting the curves on a waste piece of stock before trying the exercise. In cutting the curves swing the handle of the chisel or gouge with a full movement. Notice that if the tools slip and dig into the work, it is due to the fact that they are held in one direction while the student is trying to make them cut in another. Make the direction of the tools correspond with the direction of the cut. The hole in the end is turned after the piece has been fastened with glue into the base.

Fig. 50.

Fig. 51.

To turn the base (Fig. 55) a face plate (see C, Fig. 7) is required, and as no screw holes are to be left in the work when finished, a study of the method of operations is necessary.

The stock from which the base is turned is fastened with screws to the face plate; the side nearest the face plate will be the top or upper side when the piece is finished, so that the bottom side of the piece will be turned first. The edge is cut in the same way as explained in Exercise IV.

In order that the wall may be of equal thickness, "templets" are used. A templet is a form or pattern cut out of thin material, and is used on the work as shown in Figs. 56, 59.

Fig. 52.

Fig. 53.

To make the templets. To make the templets, lay them out as illustrated in Pig. 57. Use a coping saw to cut the two templets apart, then finish up to the lines by using a sharp knife. After the templets are cut out and the work mounted on the lathe, cut the edge of the piece to its largest diameter, and then "face it off," using the large skew chisel to cut with. The next step would be to cut the bottom to its diameter and depth (see B, Fig. 56), using the skew chisel in cutting. After the bottom member has been cut into shape, cut the side, using the templet to get the correct shape. In using the templet notice that there are two points, A and B, that are used as guides (see Figs. 56 and 59). The tools used to cut the side should be the round-nose scraping tool and the skew chisel. When all cutting on the outside is done, sandpaper the work smooth, and color with some of the stains described in the Appendix. One of the dark stains would be all right for this article.

Fig. 54.

The finish should be either shellac or wax. To finish with shellac, the work can be either a rubbed finish, like Exercise IV, or a two-coat finish and rubbed with pumice and oil, or water (see Appendix). The wax finish is applied with a rag and is left to dry for a short time, and is then polished with a dry, soft cloth, while the lathe is in motion.

Fig. 55.

When the surface is finished the work is taken off the face plate and "chucked"; that is, the work has to be turned around so that the side which was against the face plate would be out. To do this, a piece of wood is fastened on the face plate and a recess is turned into it, as shown in Fig. 58. The piece of work is held in the chuck by friction, a good tight fit being all that is needed to hold it. This operation is termed "chucking." When the piece is chucked and the work revolves true, commence to cut it out, using the round-nose scraping tool; then finish with the square-nose scraping tool or the skew chisel.

Fig. 57.

Fig. 56.

Fig. 58.

The templet applied to the work is shown in Fig. 59. After the piece has been cut into shape, turn the hole in the hub as shown in the working drawing, fit and glue the upright in place, being careful that it is fastened true; when the glue is dry, turn the hole (which holds the candle); sandpaper the work smooth, and "finish" the same as the other side.

Fig. 59.

The principles underlying work of this character are very important to the student who intends to take up pattern making; the principles and methods are applied extensively in the turning of patterns. As a supplementary lesson the student should be encouraged to design pieces of work in which the same principles are applied as that given in connection with the candlestick; that is, a piece that would require templets and also chucking to work it out,