1. Mahogany. Fustic chips, 2 oz.; madder root, 1/4 lb.; water, 1/2 gal.
2. Mahogany. Dissolve archil in water and make it of such strength as will suit; add a little eosin, and apply to the work cold.
3. Mahogany. Boil logwood chips in twice their bulk of water for two hours. Strain, then add a small quantity of chloride of tin. The tin gives redness. The quantity of tin to be used will depend upon the color required. Give the work two coats.
4. Walnut. Epsom salts, 1/4 oz.; permanganate of potash, 1/4 oz.; water, 1/2 Pt. Dissolve, strain, and apply; repeat until dark enough to suit.
5. Walnut. Vandyke brown, 4 oz.; lye or potash, 2 oz.; water, 1 1/2 lb. Boil until the bulk is reduced to less than half, and apply with a cloth when cold.
6. Walnut. Vandyke brown, 1 oz.; burnt umber, 3/4 oz.; aqua ammonia, 1/4 lb. Mix and apply after straining. Let the work stand for a time to get rid of the ammonia fumes.
7. To make a rosewood stain. Boil one quarter of a pound of logwood in one and one-half pints of water, then add one quarter of an ounce of salts of tartar. Stain the work with this solution while it is hot. Give two or three coats. To develop the grain of rosewood, take a stiff brush and streak with the ebony stain previously described, using a piece of rosewood as a pattern for the grain.
8. Rosewood. Any of the mahogany stains will make a rosewood stain if repeatedly applied. If stained to a dark mahogany tone, go over the work lightly with an ebony stain, using a camel's-hair brush. Go over the work in a straggling, haphazard way, which is peculiar to the grain of rosewood.
9. Cherry. Any of the mahogany stains will make a cherry stain if thinned.
10. Dark oak. Burnt umber, 4 oz.; aqua ammonia sufficient to make stiff paste. Thin until the desired shade is obtained.
11. To brighten stains. Nitric acid, 1/2 oz.; hydrochloric acid, 1/8 oz.; grain tin, 1/2 oz.; rain water, 1 oz. This should be mixed a few days before using.
12. A beautiful brown is obtained on whitewood and birch by using, first, extract of logwood, allowing it to dry, and then adding a coat of acetate of iron. Rub off with a soft cloth and finish with wax.
Recipe for refinishing varnished surfaces. In staining and finishing woods a student is liable to make mistakes in the color wanted. Many times, if the work could be refinished, it would be more satisfactory to him.
The following recipe for cleaning off varnish and filler, and bleaching the wood to its natural color, will be found to give very satisfactory results:
Clean off shellac and varnish with varnish remover. Varnish remover is obtained in the open market from dealers in paints and varnishes.
After the surface has been cleaned of varnish, wash it off with a strong solution of caustic potash or lye; then wash off with clean cold water; then wash off with the bleaching solution, which is made of oxalic acid, - a strong solution. Let this dry and wipe off with a damp cloth, when the surface will be ready to stain and finish in any desirable way.
Another solution which will remove varnish and may be made by the student with little difficulty is prepared in the following way: Mix together equal parts of soap powder or Gold Dust and caustic soda, add to this about one quarter as much ammonia as there is powder, then add water enough to dissolve the powder. Apply to the varnished surface with a cloth; wipe off the old varnish with burlap or excelsior and finish wiping with a clean cloth. (The hands should be protected.) Bleach the surface with the oxalic acid solution. Stain and finish in any desirable way.
A method of decorating work with designs on light-colored woods. Draw the desired design on the work. Shellac the design, being careful to keep the edges sharp. Give two or three coats, and after each, smooth the surface with fine sandpaper. When the shellac has thoroughly hardened, apply a coat of any desired dark stain to the whole work; the design will stand out like inlaid work.
Cement wax used in turning. A cement used in turning, to hold light and thin pieces on the lathe, is made as follows: resin, 1 oz.; pitch, 2 oz.; red ocher, finely powdered. Melt the resin and pitch together, and, while boiling, add the ocher. Use enough of the ocher to make the cement of the proper consistency; a little tallow is sometimes added to this.
By applying this cement to a chuck and heating it, a thin piece of wood can be held while being turned on the lathe. To remove the piece from the chuck, tap it lightly and it will come off with little trouble.
Another recipe for cement wax is: resin, 1 lb.; pitch, 4 oz. Melt together, and, while boiling, add brick dust; test it by dropping a little on a flat surface until it is found to be hard enough; then pour it into water and make up into rolls.
Still another may be made by melting equal parts of resin and beeswax together and allowing to cool, when it will be ready for use.