In equipping a shop, the first work of the machinist is the erection of the shafting. The main line should be the first laid out; and the engine, together with the jack and counter-shafting, must be located from it. After placing the hangers as nearly as possible in a horizontal line, the shafting should be placed in the boxes and attached to the hangers. For lining the shaft, a level and'a fine grass or silk line are indispensable. The line is tightly drawn, horizontally, a short distance from the position the shaft is intended to occupy, and the distance from the surface of the shaft to the line is measured and made equal near each hanger by a stick such as shown in Fig. 256.

The level is used to make the shaft horizontal; and, if the hangers are adjustable in two planes, the operation is quite rapid.

When other shafting is to be erected parallel to the first, if the distance does not exceed twelve or fifteen feet, a long stick may be used by driving a nail into the end of the stick to allow some adjustment. The level is used as before.

When the distance is great, or obstacles prevent the use of the stick as suggested, a line may be drawn on the floor of the shop by dropping a plumb line from near the ends of the first shaft and connecting the points located. Another line, directly under the desired location, may be drawn by direct measurement, and the second shaft erected by dropping a plumb line to this second floor line near the ends of the second shaft. This method may be employed, with such variations as the case may demand, even though a floor or wall be between the locations.

In leveling up long lines, or around machines, or through walls, the hydrostatic level is a most convenient tool. It consists of two graduated glass tubes set in suitable bases and connected by a rubber tube. When the rubber tube is filled with water, and the glass tubes placed vertically on the shaft, the fluid should stand at the same graduation in each glass. These levels are made with self-acting valves to prevent the escape of the fluid.

Fig. 25G. Gage for Parallel Lining of Shafting

Fig. 25G. Gage for Parallel Lining of Shafting.

When pulleys or hangers make the direct application of a level to the shaft impracticable, leveling hooks, in connection with a wooden straightedge, as shown in Fig. 257, are very convenient. These may be made of wood or metal, and of lengths suitable to the case in hand.