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Machine Shop Work | by Frederick W. Turner, Oscar E. Perrigo, Howard P. Fairfield



Comprehensive manual of approved shop methods including the construction and use of tools and machines, the details of their efficient operation, and a discussion of modern production methods

TitleMachine Shop Work
AuthorFrederick W. Turner, Oscar E. Perrigo, Howard P. Fairfield
PublisherAmerican Technical Society
Year1918
Copyright1918, American Technical Society
AmazonMachine shop work

By Frederick W. Turner, Head, Department Of Pattern Making, Mechanic Arts High School, Boston

And Oscar E. Perrigo, M. E. Consulting Mechanical Engineer Expert Patent Attorney American Society Of Mechanical Engineers Author Of "Modern Machine-Shop Construction, Equipment, And Management", "Lathe Design, Construction, Operation*', Etc.

And Howard P. Fairfield, Assistant Professor Of Machine Construction, Worcester Polytechnic Institute American Society Of Mechanical Engineers

Illustrated

-Introduction
MARVELOUS accomplishments in the mechanical world have become so common in this day and age that we scarcely realize the slow process of evolution which machine shop work has been undergoing during th...
-Part I. Hand-Operated Tools
Simultaneous Use of Hand Tools and Machines. Machine shop work is usually understood to include all cold metal work in which a portion of the metal is removed to make the piece of the required shape a...
-Measuring Tools
Angular Measurement Surface Gage The surface gage is used in laying out work for the bench, lathe, or planer. The ordinary form consists of a heavy base, an upright which is firmly attached to t...
-Measuring Tools. Part 2
Keyseat Rule For drawing lines and laying off distances on curved surfaces, such as shafts, a combination of two straightedges, or a straightedge and a rule, is used. This is often called a keyseat...
-Measuring Tools. Part 3
Protractor The bevel can be adjusted only by direct application to lines or surfaces having the proper angular relation. It often happens that such adjustment is not feasible and, therefore, a regi...
-Measuring Tools. Part 4
Dividers For transferring and comparing distances, dividers are commonly used. They are classified according to the style of joint and the length of the leg. The most simple joint is the friction a...
-Calipers
Outside and Inside Calipers. Instead of having straight legs with sharp points, caliper legs are bent and have blunt points. As distances are to be measured both outside and inside of solid bodies, we...
-Micrometers
For measurements which are required to be more accurate than can be obtained by the preceding forms of calipering devices, the micrometer caliper, Fig. 20, is used. The accuracy of its measurements is...
-Micrometers. Continued
Reading the Micrometer Reading in thousandths. As stated, the micrometer screw has usually forty threads per inch and the thimble has twenty-five divisions on its circumference. The barrel is divid...
-Vernier Calipers
A common use of a Vernier is its application to a caliper square, termed a Vernier caliper. Fig. 24 shows a representative tool. How to Read the Vernier The following text represents the L. S. S...
-Fixed Gages
While the adjustable tools just described are available for a large range of work, gages of one dimension, or fixed gages, are used to a considerable extent, especially in shops where work of a duplic...
-Surface Plates
For the production of accurate plane surfaces the use of the straightedge is not sufficient. Such surfaces should be compared with standard surfaces, called surface plates, Fig. 41. A surface plate is...
-Work Vises
In order that work may be held rigidly for the performance of hand operations, the machinist uses what is termed a vise. They are made in a great variety of forms and sizes, but all consists essential...
-Hammers
Classification The machinist uses hammers of three shapes: ball peen, cross peen, and straight peen, Fig. 45. The ball peen is the most common; it varies in weight from 4 ounces to 3 pounds. The cr...
-Cutting Tools. Chisels
The simplest form of metal-cutting tool is the chisel. The several types in common use are shown in Fig. 46. Flat Chisel The flat chisel is used for snagging castings, for chipping surfaces havi...
-Chipping
Chipping is a term applied to the removal of metal with the cold chisel and hammer. The degree of accuracy required varies. The piece is held in a vise, and the method of working is to grasp the chise...
-Files
Characteristics The file differs from the chisel in having a large number of cutting points instead of one cutting edge and in being driven directly by the hand instead of by the hammer. As hand po...
-Files. Part 2
File Handles The handles commonly attached to files are of wood and are made to fit the hollow of the hand. The handle is driven onto the tang of the file, a ferrule on the handle preventing it fro...
-Files. Part 3
Cleaning File The particles of metal removed by a file frequently remain in the teeth and diminish their cutting qualities. In the case of hard metals, these particles, or pins, often scratch the...
-Files. Part 4
Hand Scraping When two flat or curved surfaces are to be worked together, and close contact over the surfaces of both is desired, they are hand scraped. Scraping removes less metal than filing and ...
-Files. Part 5
Scratch Awl The scriber or scratch awl, Fig. 61, is made in many forms, but consists essentially of a cast-steel rod about 8 inches long and 3/16 inch diameter, with a long, slender, hardened point...
-Drilling
Drilling is the term used by shop men to denote hole production by means of a rotating tool which is provided with cutting edges located at its point. The drill, therefore, is an end cutting tool as d...
-Care of Drills
Lubrication of Drills When drilling tough metals, such as steel and wrought and malleable iron, heat is generated by the bending or changing of the form of the metal being removed and by friction c...
-Care of Drills. Continued
Resharpening Drills Great care should be exercised in the resharpening of drills. The cone point of a drill should be symmetrical, that is, the lips should be of the same length and form the same a...
-Reamers
Use of Reamers It is difficult, if not quite impossible, to drill a hole to an exact standard diameter. For much work, a variation of a few thousandths of an inch from the nominal diameter is of no...
-Reamers. Continued
Taper Reamers Reamers are made for tapered as well as for straight holes. The angle varies with the intended use of the taper. For example, the locomotive taper of 1/16 inch per foot is intended fo...
-Hand Threading Tools. Taps
Types of Taps When internal thread cutting is done by hand, the tool used is called a tap. There are many styles of taps, the Fig. 81. Types of Hand Taps: Left-Taper Tap; Center-Plug...
-Hand Threading Tools. Taps. Continued
Hand Tapping The cutting of a thread with a tap is not a difficult operation but requires care in the manipulation. The tap does not need to be forced into the work, since the thread will draw it f...
-Threading Dies
Dies are used for cutting threads on bolts and other similar parts to be placed in holes which have been threaded by taps. The general rules given for the use of taps apply to dies. As the number of t...
-Cutting Pipe Threads
Another common form of thread cutting is that on wrought-iron pipe. The pipe thread is rounded slightly at top and bottom and is made tapering at the rate of three-quarters of an inch per foot. The di...
-Part II. Power-Driven Tools
Lathes Origin The lathe is undoubtedly the oldest form of machine tool. Its prototype is the drilling machine. Each of these machine tools probably developed from that earliest example of mechan...
-Part II. Power-Driven Tools. Part 2
Round Nose The round nose is used solely for turning concave surfaces, being held as high on the work as proper cutting will allow, as shown in Fig. 93. Slide Rest To make the hand lathe more...
-Part II. Power-Driven Tools. Part 3
Work Spindle Arrangement The work spindle projects through the bearings at each end. At the right it is usually threaded to receive a faceplate F, and is also bored out and tapered for a work cente...
-Lathe Equipment
Setting Up Change-Gears for Thread-Cutting. The descriptions in the preceding pages apply particularly to the usual form of engine lathe, and a clear understanding of its construction and the details ...
-Compounding
When the proper ratio cannot be obtained by the use of the change-gears at hand, or when the gears of the desired numbers of teeth would be too small to connect properly, or too large to put in place,...
-Rapid Change-Gear Devices
The more recent development of the thread-cutting mechanism of engine lathes aims to arrange the change-gears so that any desired thread may be cut without removing or replacing any of the gears. To a...
-Lathe Attachments
The attachments usually furnished without extra charge are a large faceplate of the full swing of the lathe, a center rest, and a follower rest. The small faceplate is used only for driving the work i...
-Chucks
The lathe chuck, Fig. 103, consists of a body which is fastened to a special faceplate in such a way that it is concentric with the spindle. The three jaws AAA can be moved in and out toward or from t...
-Mandrels
Another method of holding work is by the use of a mandrel. This is a piece of steel with a slight taper; the ends are flattened for the lathe dog, as shown in Fig. 109. It frequently happens that a pi...
-Cutting Tools
General Characteristics The cutting tools used in lathes are of a great variety of shapes. These shapes are adapted to the work that is to be done, and to the kind of finish that is to be left upon...
-Clearance
Clearance prevents the tool from rubbing on the work, while rake adds to the keenness of the cutting edge, and gives freedom to the removal of the chips. A tool should have sufficient strength at the ...
-Tool-Posts
The tool is usually held to the carriage by means of a tool-post, shown in Fig. 118. The post consists of a piece with a slotted hole through the center for the tool B. A ring C slips over the post an...
-Diamond Point
A common form of tool for turning wrought iron and steel is the diamond point, shown in Fig. 124. The name is derived from the shape of the top face. This tool has both front and side rake, which form...
-Cutting-Off or Parting Tool
This tool is illustrated in Fig. 127. The blade is quite narrow-as narrow, in fact, as the character of the work will allow. As the blade needs to be narrower at the shank and at the bottom than it is...
-Boring Tools
The term boring as used in machine practice usually means methods of machining internal surfaces, other than those of common drilling and reaming. Also methods for holding the work other than those co...
-Cutting Speed
Importance of Speed Element. The speed at which cutting is done is an important matter. This varies with the shape of the tool, the quality of the metal being worked, and the strength of the lathe. Th...
-Speeds for High-Speed Steel
The cutting speeds given above are what may be used with the best grades of tool steel, such as Jessop's; but by using air-hardening or tungsten steels, the speed of cutting may be very much increased...
-Cooling the Tools
For cooling the tool while performing heavy duty, a solution of sal soda is preferable to water, as it prevents rusting of the work and machinery. Its office is simply to keep the tool cool. If a tool...
-Lathe Operations. Mounting Work on Lathe. Centering Method
A piece to be turned is supported on the two centers of the lathe. In order that this may be done, it is prepared by drilling and countersinking a hole in each end. This is called centering the work. ...
-Adjusting Pieces to Center on Faceplate
Whenever a piece is to be turned on a lathe faceplate, it is necessary to adjust it so that its rough outline is approximately concentric with the lathe centers. This is done by bolting it lightly to ...
-Centering Finished Work
After making the center punch mark in the end of the piece, it is drilled and countersunk. This must be done very accurately, but frequently the drilled hole or the countersink will not be in the exac...
-Turning
Facing or Squaring Up. The first operation usually performed on a piece of work when placed in the lathe is facing or squaring up the ends. This must be done to get a uniform bearing for the centers. ...
-Setting over Dead Center
Setting the dead center over is the more common method. Provision is generally made for moving the dead center laterally toward the front or rear of the bed according to the taper required. With the d...
-Compound Slide
In turning a taper with the compound slide, the work may be held in a chuck, on the faceplate, or between the centers. The compound slide, Fig. 146, is then set at such an angle that the direction of ...
-Turning Shafting
Shafting is usually turned 1/16 inch less than the nominal diameter. For instance, instead of a shaft 2 inches in diameter, one of 1 15/16 inches in diameter is used. The reason is that iron of a nomi...
-Eccentric Turning
The term eccentric is given to a rotating machine part which is used to throw a mechanism eccentric with its main center line. Eccentrics may be said to include all crank motions, also many cam mo...
-Crank-Shaft Turning
This is a special kind of eccentric turning in which the throws are termed crank pins and the remaining bearings are the shaft proper. In Fig. 148 is shown a simple crank shaft with a crank pin G and ...
-Boring Bars
The boring of holes sometimes calls for a length and strength of tool that cannot be readily attained with the ordinary boring tool. A great deal of such boring is done with double-headed tools. These...
-Screw Cutting
The tools used for cutting threads are called screw-cutting tools. These tools are used in the lathe in the same manner as the diamond-point and round-nosed tools. The cutting edge of the tool must be...
-Cutting Tool for Square Threads
The tool used for cutting square threads is shown in Figs. 158 and 159. It is of the proper Table III* U. S. Standard Threads, Bolts, And Nuts The Tap Drill Diameters in the Table Provide for a ...
-Cutting Standard Screw-Threads
When screw-threads are to be cut, the pitch used depends upon the outside diameter of the bar. A standard which has been generally adopted in the United States, is known as the United States Standard....
-Lathe Adjustment for Cutting Threads
The cutting of a thread demands that there shall be a certain definite ratio of motion between the rotation of the work and the travel of the carriage. For example, if a screw having a pitch of 1/4 in...
-Selecting the Gears
The rule for finding the gears to be used on the spindle and lead-screw is: Multiply the number of threads on the lead-screw and the number of threads to be cut, by the same number; the products will ...
-Compounding Gears
It is sometimes necessary to cut a screw for which there are no gears which make a direct connection, in which case the simple gearing shown in Fig. 164 cannot be used. This necessitates the compoundi...
-Hand-Chasing
The ordinary methods of cutting screws have already been described. Where great accuracy is not necessary, the threads may be chased by hand. A chaser, or chasing tool, differs from the ordinary threa...
-Drilling in the Lathe
The lathe can also be used for drilling. When such Work is to be done, the drill may be held in the spindle, and the work forced up against it by the screw of the tailstock; or the work may be revolve...
-Drillers
Drilling Operation Where holes are to be cut through metal using a rotating tool with the cutting edges at its point, the operation is known as drilling and the cutting tools are termed drills. The...
-Power Feed Driller
The heavier types of these machines are usually provided with back gearing similar to that employed in engine lathes. The power feed is obtained by suitable spindles and trains of gearing which drive ...
-Radial Driller
Another form of driller, known as the radial, is being extensively used. It is shown in Fig. 177. The drill spindle is carried on the horizontal arm, and is arranged to be set and run at any position ...
-Holding the Work
A matter to receive due consideration is that the work must be held rigidly on the work table while being drilled. This may be done in two ways. If the holes are to be drilled with great accuracy, the...
-Planers
As the name indicates, the planer is used for finishing flat surfaces. In the ordinary planer, the work is moved, and the tool is at rest. A common form of this tool is shown in Fig. 183. It consists ...
-Planers. Continued
Planer Tools The tools used with planers do not differ essentially from those described for lathe work. The same rules apply regarding the holding of the tool. It should project as short a distance...
-Plate Planer
A special form of planer extensively used in boiler shops and shipyards is the plate planer, Fig. 191. It is used for planing the edges of long plates. The plate is securely fastened between the 12 pn...
-Shapers
For the lighter jobs of planing, the shaper, or shaping planer, Fig. 192, is extensively used. It possesses the advantage of rapidity of action. In this machine, as in the plate planer, the tool recip...
-Slotter
Another machine tool which is not used as commonly as its many good qualities would seem to warrant, is the slotter, Fig. 194. It is in reality a shaper with the tool reciprocating vertically instead ...
-Milling Machines
Milling Machine Vs Shaper and Planer. The operation known as milling differs so radically from the removal of metal by methods previously described, that it merits much more careful and lengthy dis...
-Milling Cutters
Classification As the type of cutter used determines, in a large measure, the design of the machine itself, it will be better at this point to take up a description of some of the different cutters...
-Cutter Arbor
Fig. 202 shows the usual form of cutter arbor, in which A is the taper shank fitting the taper-reamed hole in the milling-machine spindle; B is the flattened portion or tang fitting in the cross-slot ...
-Plain Milling Cutters
Screw-slotting cutters, Fig. 203, and slitting saws, Fig. 204, are saws of a special type. The true milling cutter, Fig. 205, has a face much wider in proportion to its diameter than the common slitti...
-Form Cutters
Brief mention has been made of cutters to generate irregular contours. These cutters are known as form cutters, and, except in certain shapes, such as quarter- and half-rounds, are not carried in stoc...
-End Mills
All the cutters thus far mentioned are provided with central holes, and are intended to be mounted on an arbor which is carried by the milling machine spindle and supported in some suitable manner at ...
-Dovetail Cutters
Dovetail cutters, Fig. 217, and cutters of various angles for making ratchets, are merely variations of the end mill When end mills are made of large size, they can be furnished with inserted teeth...
-Types Of Milling Machines. Bench Miller
In taking up the subject of machines devoted especially to milling, it is well to consider that the transition from milling in the lathe to the special milling machine was bridged by an attachment to ...
-Micrometer Graduations
It will be seen, therefore, that one of the principal advantages of the milling machine is its wide range of working capacity, and the accuracy with which the table can be placed with relation to the ...
-Planer Type Milling Machines
The slabbing miller, Fig. 225, is of the planer type, the cross-rail carrying a rigidly supported cutter, while the table has the comparatively slow feed required for milling. This type of machine is ...
-Milling Operations
Classification These may be classified in a manner similar to the cutters themselves, whose names will suggest the kind of work for which they are adapted. Plane Milling or Surface Milling Th...
-Preparing the Milling Machine for Work
The taper shank of the arbor and the hole in the spindle should be wiped clean and free from oil or grit. Should the outer end of the arbor be supported by a pointed center or a bushing, it will not b...
-Cutting Speeds
Conditions Governing Speed There are no hard and fast rules that will properly govern a majority of cases of the continually varying conditions of milling cutters, machines, and the material to be ...
-Cutting Speeds. Part 2
Table IV. Speeds And Feeds For Milling Cutters Material Speed (ft. per min.) Feed (in. per min.) Soft cast iron 60 1 1/2 ...
-Cutting Speeds. Part 3
Table V. Surface Milling Of Cast Iron Diameter of Mill (in.) Revolutions per Minute Speed of Cutter per Minute (ft.) Depth of Cut (in.) ...
-Cutting Speeds. Part 4
Table VII. End Or Face Milling Of Cast Iron Diameter of Mill (in.) Revolutions per Minute Speed of Cutter per Minute (ft.) Depth of Cut (in....
-Cutting Speeds. Part 4. Part 2
Fig. 237. Fluting Taper Reamor. Courtesy of Van Norman Machine Tool Company, Springfield, Massachusetts Fig. 238. Milling Spirals with Table at Angle. Construct a right-angled triangl...
-Cutting Speeds. Part 4. Part 3
Use of Dividing Head. In order that the gear may be accurately and quickly set for cutting each tooth, a dividing head is used, which is shown in Fig. 243. The mandrel upon which the gear blank is mou...
-Grinding Machine
Value of Grinding as Finishing Process. When greater accuracy than that obtainable on the milling machine or the lathe is required, recourse is had to grinding. This operation depends upon the abrasiv...
-Grinding Machine. Continued
Table IX. Speed Of Grinding Wheels Diameter of Wheel (in.) Maximum Revolutions PER MlNUTE Diameter of...
-Lapping
Lapping Holes Lapping is a term applied to a particular method employed in the grinding out of holes. The lap consists of a cylinder of soft metal run rapidly inside the hole to be lapped, and cove...
-Disc Grinder for Flat Top Work
Laps for flat surfaces have grown in favor so rapidly that special machines called disc grinders have been made to do this work. The construction of the disc grinder can be so readily seen from the il...
-Laying Out Work
Laying out work is one of the most important details of machine shop practice. Ordinarily all work is laid out. The exceptions are where certain pieces are worked from templets, and in these cases the...
-Layout for Planer and Milling Machine
In laying out the work for the planer and milling machine, great care must be exercised. It is necessary that there should be a base line to which the lines may be referred. It depends on the chara...
-Layout for Lathe
Work is rarely laid out for the lathe. It is not necessary that it should always be done for the planer. Laying out is employed where accuracy is essential, and where it is possible to secure the prop...
-Fitting
Fitting is the term generally applied to the hand work necessary in assembling machinery after all the machine work has been done. Filing, either in the vise or lathe, and scraping, are the. operation...
-Peening
Peening consists in stretching the metal on one side of a piece of work in order to alter its shape. There is a wide difference between peening and bending. For example, suppose the curved or warped p...
-Drilling Hard Metals
It is sometimes desirable to drill a hole in very hard metal. To do this the drill must be made very hard; it must be run at a very slow speed; it must be forced against the work as hard as possible w...
-Generating Surface Plates
In this operation it is necessary to work with three at the same time. For the sake of making the explanation clear, they will be called A, B, and C. After the plates have been planed, a straightedge ...
-Joints
Where a gas or liquid is to be retained in a pipe or other vessel without leakage, a tight joint is necessary. The method of grinding valves to their seats has already been explained. In that case, it...
-Fluting Rollers
Where feed rollers such as those used in woodworking machinery are to be turned and fluted, the turning should always be done first. This insures a continuous surface for the cutting tool. Where old r...
-Pickling
Where castings are to be worked, either in the lathe or planer, to dimensions only a little less than those when rough, they should be pickled. This consists in washing them with a solution of sulphur...
-Lining Shafting
In equipping a shop, the first work of the machinist is the erection of the shafting. The main line should be the first laid out; and the engine, together with the jack and counter-shafting, must be l...
-Machine Setting
After the shafting is erected, comes the setting of machines. The countershafts are first erected parallel to the main line, and with due regard to the location of the machine. The machine is then pla...
-Belting
The shafting and machines are usually driven by belting. Leather is the material generally used, and the belting may be from single to six-ply in any suitable width. Single belting has a flesh and a g...
-Part IV. Gear Cutting
Theory of Toothed Gearing. The fundamental principle of toothed gearing is that of two cylinders or portions of cones with their surfaces in contact, and rolling together in opposite directions. Th...
-Designing Gears
Fixed Pitch Method Formerly the teeth of gears were designed on the basis of a fixed distance representing the pitch. This was usually based on the common fractions of an inch or multiples of them,...
-Laying Out Teeth
The method of laying out teeth of the first class is shown in Fig. 264. The pitch circle A has its center at B, upon the vertical line BC, From this center the addendum circle D and the dedendum or ro...
-Internal Gears
Internal gears must frequently be used when there is not room for spur gears or when the nature of the work or the design of the machine of which they are a part renders this form necessary or advisab...
-Teeth of Racks
Two methods are in use for drawing the form of teeth for racks. The first method is shown in Fig. 268. The pitch line A, addendum line B, and dedendum line C are straight lines located as before descr...
-Bevel Gears
In the treatment of spur gears, we have considered them fundamentally as cylinders rolling upon each other (ordinary spur gears) or a cylinder rolling on the inner surface of a larger one (internal ge...
-Worm Gearing
This is a term used to describe the device consisting of a gear similar to a spur gear driven by a worm-that is, a cylinder upon whose surface is a thread fitting into the teeth of the gear. The relat...
-Spiral Gears
As has heretofore been stated, the spur gear has its teeth cut in a line parallel to the axis. If the teeth are cut at an angle to the axis, and the cut continued by the gradual rotation of the gear b...
-Milling Process
The first process, milling with a properly formed revolving cutter, as in ordinary milling machine work, is applicable not only to the work mentioned above, but also to the cutting of spiral gears and...
-Planing Process
First Method The second process, that of planing the forms of the teeth, is accomplished by three methods. One is to form a planing tool to the exact contour of the space between the teeth, and by ...
-Hobbing Gears
In forming the teeth of worm gears, the greater part of the space is cut out by a stocking cutter or roughing cutter, which is adjusted at a proper angle, according to the pitch of the worm which the ...
-Tools for Testing Gear Teeth
To ascertain if the teeth of a gear are being cut properly, the gear-tooth caliper shown in Fig. 280 is used. This is for measuring the distance from the top of the teeth to the pitch line, and the th...
-Cutting Spiral Gears
In cutting spiral gears the universal milling machine is generally used, as it is provided with proper devices for rotating the gear blank at the same time that it is fed toward the cutter. The machin...
-Cutting Spiral Gears. Part 2
Automatic Gear-Cutting Machine The automatic gear-cutting machine built by Gould and Eberhardt is shown in Fig. 285. It is of the same type as that built by Brown and Sharpe and possesses some exce...
-Cutting Spiral Gears. Part 3
Bilgram Gear-Planing Machine The Bilgram gear-planing machine, shown in Fig. 290, operates upon a principle similar to that of the machine just described, but with this important difference. In the...
-Turret Lathes
The turret lathe, as we know it today, is a comparatively modern machine, and was developed from an ordinary engine lathe by the addition of revolving tool-holding devices called turrets. The turre...
-Turret Lathes. Part 2
Fig. 292. Form of Monitor Lathe. An engine lathe equipped as described in class 1 is shown in Fig. 293. In this particular machine, the turret is of hexagona form. In the earlier machines it wa...
-Turret Lathes. Part 3
Fig. 297. I 24-Inch Turret Lathe with Motor Drive Courtesy of Gisholt Machine Company, Madison, Wisconsin. A very complete turret lathe is shown in Fig. 297, as an example of class 5. The tur...
-Tools for the Turret
Drills, reamers, boring bars, counter-bores, etc., may have shanks formed upon them, or may fit in collets fitted to the tool-holes in the turret, or in plain drill-holders. A split collet is shown in...
-Turret-Lathe Operations
The particular sphere of the turret lathe, and the use of the various tools and tool-holding devices, can be best explained by illustrating and describing some of the more important operations in the ...
-Turret-Lathe Operations. Continued
First Operation The wheel is chucked as shown at A on the inside of the rim, by the chuck-jaws B, This leaves the outside of the rim clear for the turning tools. The cored hole is first rough-bored...
-Automatic Screw Machines
The automatic screw machine, in its design and method of operation, is a highly developed type of turret lathe, its cutting tools being carried in some form of turret. By the term turret, as used in t...
-Types of Automatic Screw Machines
Manufacturing Auto-Matic Chucking And Turning Machine Fig. 313 shows a Potter and Johnson machine, called by them a manufacturing automatic chucking and turning machine. It is a good example of a s...
-Cleveland Automatic Machine
Fig. 315 shows a Cleveland automatic machine, of which several variations of the same style are built. The main spindle A is driven from the system of pulleys B, the belt being controlled by the autom...
-Brown and Sharpe Automatic Screw Machine
This machine, shown in Fig. 318, is of a type quite distinct from any of those above described. It will be noticed that the machine is very compact when compared with some of the others previously ill...
-Brown and Sharpe Automatic Screw Machine. Continued
Setting-Up the Machine A variety of types of automatic screw machines have been shown and described, in order that the reader may familiarize himself with those built by different manufacturers, an...
-Part V. Modern Manufacturing
Machine Building Vs Machine Manufacturing. While machine work in general, and the use of machine tools in particular are much the same in all shops, the methods employed in machine building and in ...
-Part V. Modern Manufacturing. Part 2
Specialized Cutting Steels Modern investigations have led to the adoption of specialized cutting methods and cutting tools in up-to-date manufacturing. At the very center of these shop efficiency m...
-Part V. Modern Manufacturing. Part 3
Special Die Forgings While the ordinary forged piece is seldom suited for use in accurate machine construction without previous machining, several firms are now producing special die forged machine...
-Drives
Belt Drives The belt manufacturer has helped to solve this problem by producing belting suited to the machine constructor's needs. Most conditions of temperature, humidity, and pliability have been...
-Grinding Machines
Range of Usefulness While in many shops the grinding machine is used only as a finishing tool on parts which require a special surface, or in which greater accuracy is required than is readily reac...
-Grinding Machines. Continued
Wheel Traverse This is taken as the distance the abrasive wheel travels axially during a complete revolution of the work. While experts differ as to what proportion of the face of the wheel this sh...
-Grinding Methods
Skilled Operators The larger manufacturers of grinding machines have representatives trained to the highest skill in operating their line of machines. A purchaser of their machines can have one of ...
-Internal Cylindrical Grinding
Machine grinding the internal surfaces of gas engine cylinders may be used as a good example of this line of production work. Figs. 334 and 335 show two views of such work. It will be noted that these...
-Internal Cylindrical Grinding. Part 2
Table XIV-(Continued) Selection Of Grades Class of Work Alundum Crystolon Grain Grade Grain Grade ...
-Internal Cylindrical Grinding. Part 3
Table XV. Rate Of Grinding Gun Parts On Vertical Grinder No 1 on two sides - 40 to 50 per hour No. 2 on one side - ...
-Milling Machines: Horizontal, Vertical and Planer
Production milling is done on three distinct types of machines known as the horizontal, the vertical, and the planer type. Horizontal Milling Machine Fig. 341 shows a representative machine of t...
-Drilling Machines
Production drilling machines are of two sorts: Those designed for heavy drilling, and those for the lighter jobs. Fig. 347. Ingersoll Horizontal Miller Doing Heavy Milling Note how lubricant fl...
-Drilling Machines. Continued
Table XVII. High-Speed Drills Size of Drill (in.) Feed per Rev. (in.) Bronze Brass r.p.m. 300 FT. C.Iron Ann'ld r.p.m. 170 FT. ...
-Turning Machines
Special and specialized machines for high speed turning will be illustrated under this heading. Turning Lathe Fig. 351 shows a production lathe for rapid turning of machine parts. It is represen...
-Planing Machines
Production Planers The machine tool shown in Fig. 363 is for quantity production of plane surfaces. Enormous machines of this type are in use, constructed to drive and feed the best of cutting tool...
-Broaching Machines
Types of Machines and Nature of Work. Fig. 365 is representative of a type of machine tool which makes use of a train of cutting edges for roughing and finishing holes in machine parts. Typical broach...
-Production Tools, Jigs, And Fixtures. Cutting Tools
Materials Iron. Iron is one of the commonest metals in use. In nature it is found in a form known as iron ore. In this form it has many impurities from which it must be separated before it is valua...
-Jigs And Fixtures
General Classification The terms jigs and fixtures are rather loosely used by shopmen. While this is necessarily so in some cases, in most instances it is more correct to apply the term jig to ...
-Jigs And Fixtures. Part 2
Table XIX. Dimensions Of Stationary Drill Bushings A B L 1/16 3/16 3/8 1/8 1/4 ...
-Jigs And Fixtures. Part 3
Table XX. Dimensions Of Lining Bushings A B L 5/16 l/2 1/2 3/8 9/16 1/2 ...
-Jigs And Fixtures. Part 4
Table XXI. Dimensions Of Removable Drill Bushings A B c D E F H I K 1/8 ...
-Jigs And Fixtures. Part 5
Table XXII. Bushings For Holes Reamed With Rose Chucking Reamers A B C D E F G H I ...
-Jigs And Fixtures. Part 6
Spotting Hand scraped or other plane surfaces are given an attractive appearance by what is termed spotting. A skilful worker with the hand scraper will cover a plane surface with regular spots i...
-Boring Fixtures
Fig. 391 shows a fixture used in boring out the head casting of a ball-bearing lathe. In this fixture, the casting is held while being bored. As the spindle holes are located by the bushed holes for t...
-Ball Bearings
Uses of Ball Bearings. The claims made for the use of ball bearings in preference to plain bearings are several in number as follows: Less wear, less frictional resistance, more compact, non-heating i...
-Ball Bearings. Part 2
Extra Heavy Type 17 0.6693 62 2.4409 20 0.7874 1,100 880 680 540 20...
-Ball Bearings. Part 3
Heavy Type 17 0.669 62 2.441 17 0.669 750 600 450 370 20 ...
-Ball Bearings. Part 4
Table XXIII. (Continued) Load Capacities Of Radial Ball Bearings Diameter Bore Outside Diameter Width Revolutions per Minute Millimet...
-Ball Bearings. Part 5
Light Type 10 0.393 30 1.181 9 0.354 220 175 120 108 12 ...
-Ball Bearings. Part 6
Table XXIV. Loads For Thrust Collar Bearings No. OF Balls Size of Balls Revolutions per Minute 1500 1000 500 ...
-Ball Bearings. Part 7
Light Weight, Load In Pounds 21 5/16 640 770 900 1,155 1,410 1,630 2,200 2,970 ...
-Magnetic Chucks
Uses in Production Work. A magnetic chuck is essentially an electromagnet provided with a flat work face. Fig. 397 shows a magnetic chuck of the type commonly used on planers, milling machines, boring...
-Safety First
A growing apprehension of the possibilities of so safeguarding machines that the operator is reasonably sure that he incurs little risk of life or limb, would seem to render timely a few words on this...







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