Ivory is a material easily left smooth from the tool, and as facile to polish. It readily receives scratches from glass paper, the use of this is therefore limited so far as possible, and that used is of the finest character or much worn; it is good practice for ivory, as also to obtain the smoothest surface upon hardwood, to first rub the pieces of glass paper face to face, to level any particles that may be in excess. Dutch rush may replace the glass paper, and although slower and less convenient, it is free from most of the objections to the latter. Cleansed from the dust of the glass papering, works in ivory are polished with washed whiting mixed with water to the consistence of cream, contained in a shallow vessel placed under the work, and applied upon folded rag as a thin rubber; the latter is employed in precisely the same manner in all respects as if it were a piece of glass paper, with the same precautions to avoid marking rings upon the work, and it is never allowed to become dry. A small flat piece of soft deal plentifully supplied with the whiting and water, is employed with advantage upon flat surfaces, and a square slip, upon square fillets, edges and internal angles; the end of a slip of deal dipped in the whiting and water, is employed for small mouldings and incised ornament, into which it soon fits by wear. The smooth mixture of whiting cuts with more vigour than might be supposed, the process therefore has to be conducted with care and with a thin rubber, that all edges may be felt with the fingers, and the use of the flat slip of wood resorted to, to avoid deteriorating the forms of the angles turned upon the work. A moderate but equal continuance of the polishing suffices, when, so soon as the work ceases to hang to, and is felt to run quite smoothly under the rag, it is discontinued, and the work is thoroughly washed with water and allowed to dry, still upon the chuck; in which condition it is subsequently finished and acquires a brilliant polish from friction, given with a few drops of neat's foot oil upon clean soft rag.

Figs. 610 to 620, forms having little ornament, and ranging from one and a half to about seven inches high, used for Egg cups, Salt cellars, Match and Spill pots, and to contain glasses as Flower holders, may be turned either in hard or softwood, in most cases from single pieces of the material. All having to be hollowed with large apertures leaving only a narrow annular surface, the material selected is first mounted between centers, or in the chuck, fig. 286, that one end may be turned down true, slightly taper and surfaced, to fit within a plain chuck, fig. 256, which carries the work; so as to dispense, more or less, with the support of the popit head. For the larger among these works when mounted in the plain chuck, it is however frequently a safeguard to use the popit head, when much of the material has to he turned away in first roughing the work to external form, and then to remove it for the hollowing and finishing.

In softwood all would be turned from material the length-way of the grain with the gouge and chisel, in a similar manner and with the same precautions, as with fig. 609; the general dimensions of any one, being arranged to the proportions of the piece of material employed. The latter having been securely chucked and roughly turned true, the position of the under surface of the base, is first marked by a line cut in the cylinder with the chisel, always leaving the available material a little in excess of the finished height of the design. The widths of the different curves composing the outline, being also all set out and marked from the same line upwards during the progress of the work, the excess of length is finally reduced in turning the surface and form of the uppermost moulding.

The outlines having been turned nearly to the form with the gouge, all are finished with the chisel, with the exception of the three small concave curves shown in the feet of three of the figures, which are completed with the gouge. Upon the tapering cydindrical curves of such forms as figs. 616. 617 and 618, the edge of the chisel is first presented with its obtuse corner against the projecting moulding or other form at the upper end, to turn the adjacent short portion, which as already explained cannot be otherwise conveniently nor safely reached; the blade is then turned over to proceed downhill for the remainder of the curve, the obtuse corner thus also arriving in contact with the lower projection. No such precaution is necessary upon fig. 615, where the chisel travels downhill along both halves of the curve, the obtuse angle thus meeting first the one and then the other side of the astragal, of which the fillets and their square edges have been previously formed by the chisel. The tapering outlines of fig. 620 are turned as cones; while that of fig. 619 may be considered as merely the curve of the handle, fig. 608, enforced. The chisel is employed upon the latter and upon all the other curves in these outlines in a similar way, travelling from the largest to the smallest diameter, first upon one and then upon the other half of the curve; in some of the more rapid curvatures being guided as upon the sphere, but the obtuse angle always leading. The three central figures are among other examples of forms which overhang their base; these when chucked in the manner supposed, require an additional length of material left between the form and the edge of the chuck, and turned down beneath the diameter of the base, to allow sufficient space to admit the chisel in turning the mouldings on the foot.

Axial Or Simple Plain Turning Part 6 400362

Plate IV.

The internal turning in softwood, is commenced with a deep hole bored with a small nose or spoon bit, which may then be increased with a larger, and afterwards enlarged with the gouge, hook and side tools. Short internal curvatures, as in the four smaller of the specimens and others of moderate depth, may be entirely completed with the gouge; the tool being generally used upon portions in the reversed position, fig. 365. Deeper hollows, some of which have straight or nearly straight sides, are turned near the mouth with the gouge, and then completed with the hook and side tools; the use of all the foregoing being described in the elementary chapter.