Remarks About Phrases.

426.   "Five or Six."— The outline of this phrase is the only exception to the limitation of use of Vee-hook on curves stated at 198.

427.   " Give."— When give is joined to a preceding stem it should have its vowel \ inserted. Examples : — Did you give, to give.

428.   "Of" Sometimes Omitted. - In cases where the presence of the preposition of would necessarily be inferred, as in writing dates and certain set phrases, its sign may be omitted; thus, "12 May," "burden proof," "preponderance evidence," for "12th of May," " burden of proof," " preponderance of evidence." As a rule, however, of should be written with its proper sign, Roid2

429.   " Of the " by Proximity. - Many phonographers are in the habit of generally indicating of-the by proximity ; thus,315 loss of the money. The practice is not a safe one, especially in writing technical or difficult matter ; but it is well to be possessed of the expedient, as it may be found useful in very rapid plain work.

430.   " One " with Way-hook and En-hook:— In a very few phrases one is written with the Way-hook and En-hook combined. Examples in List :— At one time, which one, etc.

431.   "Stock."— The regular outline of the word stock is Stĕk. But sometimes in phrases and compounds it is better to use Set-Kay. Examples :


Key. In stock, common stock, preferred stock, rolling-stock, laughing-stock.

432.   "What," "When," or "We" by Hook-breve. - The

Hook-breve for w on Lee may be used for either what, when, or we, according as the outline is written in the first, second, or third position. Examples:


Key. What will, what else, when will, we will.

433. "When " is never joined in phrases except at the beginning and is invariably written on the line. Whenever its regular breve, Thoid, will not join well with the succeeding stem, Soid is sometimes used for when.

434.   "What" is joined freely at the beginning of phrases with Soid above the line. Aside from a few exceptions, like at-what, of-whal, etc., what should not be joined after other words, because of its liability to conflict with would.

435.   "Would," at the beginning of phrases, is always written with Soid below the line. When joined after other words would is usually written with Soid ; but in a few phrases, in order to secure better junctions, Thoid is used instead.

436.   " We," at the beginning of phrases, may be written with the breve Thoid or Soid ( 170 ), or with the stem Way3. But when the use of Soid for we would interfere with phrases commencing with what, the stem Way 3 should be employed for we. Joined after other words we is generally written with a breve-sign.

437.   "With," written with its regular sign, Thoid, is joined in phrases only at the beginning, and is always written below the line.

Examples of "When," " What," "Would," " We," and " With," in phrases :


Key. When did, when is, when the, when a, when was, when were, when they ; what was, what do, what can, what kind, what a, what the, what is, what is the, what is a, what is your, what would you, at what, of what ; would be, would say, which would, they would, that would ; we do not, we think, we may, we can, we can-not ; with which, with that, with the, with a, with him, with his.

438. "With" and "Without" in Special Phrases. - To facilitate the writing of a few expressions of frequent recurrence which contain the words with and without, special phrase-signs are provided, as follows:


Key. With reference, with regard, with relation, with respect, with or without. (See 437).

439.   "Was" with Way-hook and circle. - In a very few phrases was is written with the initial Way-hook and final breve-z combined. Examples in List: - It was, where was, etc.

440.   " We " with Way-hook. - We is sometimes written with the Way-hook (225). Examples in List: - Can we, do we, had we.

441.   "You-r" with Yay-hook. - You and your are sometimes written with the Yay-hook (226, Rem.). Examples in List: - Did you, do you, had you, at your, etc.

442.   "Where-was-your."—In the List two forms are given to this phrase. When the phrase stands alone, your is best written with the breve Noid. But when other signs are joined after it, either Noid or the stem Yay is used, according to which makes the best junction. In the phrase Where-was-your-place, use Yay; in Where-was-your-business, use Noid.

443.   "Ing " followed by Breve-words. - The method of indicating ing-a and ing-the by writing the breves for a and the in the place of the Ing-dot or stem-Ing (165 and 166), may be extended to other breve-words, and even to breve-phrases, as shown below.


Key. Thinking of, believing he, taking him, remembering we, thanking you, parting of the, remarking I would, hearing of you-r.

444.   The " Three I's." - The frequently recurring objection, "Objected to as incompetent, immaterial and irrelevant," may be indicated by the reporter by simply writing "3 I-Z,"—the latter character being the diphthong I and the stem Zee joined (57).

445.   " Sub-reception." The expression, "Same objection, ruling, and exception," may be indicated by the outline '* sub-reception."