312. From the fact that the circles and loops, when joined finally or initially to the simple ends of straight stems, are invariably turned on the side and in place of the Ef or El hook, we are enabled to utilize the placing of these breves on the other side of straight stems in the following manner:

313.   Rule for Implied Hooks. - By merely writing a circle or loop on any straight stem on the side opposite the regular circle side, that is, on the En or Er hook side, either n or r, according as the circle or loop is final or initial, is implied, without any hook being actually indicated at all. Examples:


314.  Names of Stems with Implied Hooks. - These two sets of compound stems are called respectively the " Ens-series" and the "Sper-series." The names of the individual stems are formed as follows: Chens, Dens, Pens, Reens, Chenses, Benses, Denst, Ken-ster; Stree, Spree, Skray, Sĕber, Sester, Stetter, etc.

315.   Vocalization of Ens-Stems. - Stems of the Ens-series are vocalized the same as En-hook stems (184). Examples:


316.   Vocalization of Sper-Stems. - Stems of the Sper-series are vocalized the same as Er-hook stems (212).

317.   Order of Reading. - When a vowel-sign stands before a stem of this series, as in the words suitor, cedar, saber, stoker, etc., the circle or loop is sounded first; then the vowel; next the stem; and, following that, the implied hook.