I am not referring here to the frank sexual dreams which nearly every one has experienced, but to the more highly disguised and symbolized type of dreams briefly referred to above. The erotic desire may be something retained from the infantile or childhood life and derived not at all from adult life or recent experiences. It is the repressed infantile desire which often appears in the dream, not literally, but, as in the conventionalities imposed by civilization and culture, disguised by indirect means, often by mere allusions. These are the sexual symbols of dreamers, many of them quite complex and often incomprehensible until we trace their sources to other channels. These symbols are the same in all dreams, because they are universal, the result of collective thinking and can only be interpreted like a hieroglyph or a cuneiform inscription.

The dream may use as material to express its symbolism certain recent mechanical inventions, as in the following "flying dream": The subject dreamed that he was on the edge of a beautiful valley, in an aeroplane, flying from place to place, with a strong sense of pleasure. He felt delighted to go and come as he pleased in the dream. This dream is a variant of the typical flying or floating dreams which recur so frequently as to be grouped among the typical dreams. These typical dreams will be discussed in a subsequent chapter. It needs only to be pointed out here that in the above case the aeroplane was used as material to express the underlying symbolism of such a flying dream, which in its essence meant a wish to be free from all social restraint, to do as one pleased.

7. The Censor and Psychical Repression. The conservation of ideas and memories in the unconscious and their later appearance in a dream is seen in the following interesting number dream:

The subject was shown a white sheet of paper, and on it were two rows of figures as in statistical tables, viz.:

331

133

331

133

331

133

She said in the dream to some one: "Which is it - 133 or 331?"

On awakening from the dream, she could not recall what the numbers signified.

Analysis. A couple of days previously, the subject became interested in calculating machines with their rows of numbers. This acted as the dream instigator. A young woman friend had been recently married, and she was planning to send her a wedding present. The number of the street on which the bride lived had been told her on two occasions, but she was in an abstract, inattentive condition when informed. Later on, while attempting to recall the number, she could not, try as she would. She had selected a pretty

Japanese picture for the present, but after selecting it, she felt that she really wanted the picture for herself, as it was rather rare, and she was therefore not especially desirous of sending the present to the bride. Thus this disturbing complex acted in such a way as to prevent the conserved but unconscious number from reaching consciousness. The number was really there, but on account of the disturbing complex it could not be recalled, and yet consciously she strongly wished to remember the number. On awakening from the dream, it was impossible to tell what the numbers signified or connect them with the wedding present, thus demonstrating that the disturbing complex was at work both when asleep and awake. Then again she asked the same person: "Where does she live?" and the reply came: "I told you twice yesterday, but you were not paying much attention to me; it was Thirty-three Blank Street."

It will be noticed now that the number of the street was disguised in the dream by being placed in two rows of three (a symbol-ization of the real number) and by having one placed before and after the real number. This disguise was for the deliberate yet unconscious purpose of preventing the subject from recalling the number, even in a dream, because the subject did not really wish to give the present selected, but wanted to keep the special gift for herself on account of its uniqueness. This caused a resistance in reproducing the number both while asleep and awake, although the number was actually registered and conserved. Now what made this resistance; what was its ultimate purpose; and what was gained by it ? How was the instigator or the source of the dream material (in this case the calculating machines) able to set into activity the unconscious wish to remember the number, and why was it not definitely remembered? Why was it disguised? The answer to these questions opens up the discussion of a very important factor in all dreams, termed the censor or the censorship of consciousness and the theory of psychical repression.

The entire subject of psychical repression is one of great importance, not only in dreams and in the development of psychoneurotic symptoms, but likewise in everyday life, as a defence of the mind to neutralize our unwelcome and unpleasant thoughts. In analyzing a dream, for instance, groups of thoughts will suddenly crop out which surprise us, thoughts which carry with themselves an unpleasant emotion and seem foreign to our personality. When we arrive at these thoughts, we attempt to push them back, because they are out of harmony with our conscious feelings, but once they have fully obtruded into consciousness, they tend to remain there. These are the repressed thoughts which in the past we have pushed into the unconscious, and are wishes and desires whose nature is such that they act as intruders to the normal course of thinking or are unacceptable to our moral or ethical standards; hence the constant attempt to conceal them and to push them out of the conscious into the unconscious. This process of repression is not always voluntary, but may be an involuntary act as well, in order to protect the mind from ideas and feelings which are unpleasant and painful.

When thoughts have been made unconscious through repression, a certain force or resistance must be overcome before such unconscious thoughts can again become conscious. This resistance is a defensive action of the mind and the distortion, disguise, fusion, or symbolic expression which take place in a dream is due to the force exerted by this resistance, which is termed the censor. The feeling that perhaps we have dreamed a great deal more than we remember is probably based upon a vague memory of the latent thoughts of the dream, which have been prevented from fully reaching consciousness through the force exerted by this censor.