The first of these more accessible conditions to claim attention is natural somnambulism, or sleepwalking. The phenomena of this peculiar state have been observed from time immemorial, and have always been looked upon as one of the most wonderful and interesting subjects in the domain of the old psychology.

his waking hours, is easily accomplished, and he finds the solution of his mathematical problem or the needed point in his argument all plainly wrought out and prepared for him when he goes to his desk the following morning; moreover, if the work from any cause should be interrupted, and the same conditions recur upon the following or some subsequent night, it may be resumed at the point where it was interrupted; or if the somnambulist talks, as well as acts, in his sleep the conversation shows that each succeeding occasion is connected with previous ones, all together constituting a chain of memories similar to that of the different personalities which have been presented in the four cases already described.

Sometimes all these different actions are accomplished without light or with the eyes fast closed, or else open and staring, but without vision. Sometimes, however, the new personality developed in the sleep of the somnambulist fails to come into proper relations with his surroundings, when he may also fail to accomplish the dangerous journey, and may walk from an open window or an unguarded balcony with disastrous results.

The second condition which presents analogies to the duplex or multiplex pesonalities, which are under consideration, is that of the somnambulism which occurs in the hypnotic sleep. While usually the hypnotic subject is passive and unconsciously receives the suggestions which are impressed upon him, not unfrequently a personality comes to the front which acts independently, and presents all the characteristics which we have found pertaining to a distinct personality.

A rare example of this alternating personality brought about by hypnotism is afforded by the French subject, Mme. B., whose acquaintance we have already made as a subject upon whom hypnotism at a distance was successfully carried out by Prof. Janet and Dr. Gibert of Havre. As we have already seen, in her ordinary condition Mme. B. is a stolid, substantial, honest French peasant, about forty years of age, of very moderate intelligence, and without any education or any ambition for notoriety. In this state Prof. Janet calls her Leonie.

Hypnotized, she is at once changed into a bright, vivacious, mischief-loving, rather noisy personality, who considers herself on excellent terms with the doctor, and whom the professor names Leontine. Later, by further hypnotiza-tion and a deeper trance, there appears a sedate, sensible personality, intellectually much superior to Leonie, the primary self, and much more dignified than the vivacious Leontine, and this third personality Prof. Janet calls Leonore.

Leontine, the hypnotic or second self, knows Leonie, the original Mme. B., very well, and is very anxious not to be confounded with her. She always calls her "the other one," and laughs at her stupidity. She says, "That good woman is not I, she is too stupid." One day Prof. Janet hypnotized Leonie, and as usual at once Leontine was present. Prof. Janet then suggested to Leontine that when she awoke and Leonie had resumed the command, she (Leontine) should take off the apron of Leonie, their common apron, on their one physical personality, and then tie it on again. She was then aroused from her hypnotic condition, and at once Leonie was present without the slightest knowledge of Leontine, for she never knew of this second personality, nor of hypnotic suggestion in any form. Leonie, supposing the professor's experiment was over, was conducting him to the door, talking indifferently in her slow, dull way, and at the same time unconsciously her fingers were working at her apron-strings. The loosened apron was falling off when the professor called her attention to it. She exclaimed, "Why, my apron is falling off!" and then, fully conscious of what she was doing, she replaced and tied it on again. She then continued her talk. She only supposed that somehow accidentally the apron had come untied and she had retied it, and that was all.

To the now submerged Leontine, however, this was not enough; her mission had not been completed, and at her silent prompting Leonie again fumbled at the apron-strings; unconsciously she untied and took off the apron, and then put it on again without her attention having been drawn to what she had now the second time done. The next day Prof. Janet again hypnotized Leonie and Leontine made her appearance.

"Well," said she, "I did what you told me yesterday. How stupid 'the other one' looked while I took her apron off! Why did you tell her that her apron was falling off? Just for that, I had to do the job all over again."

Here the hypnotic or secondary self, as in my own reported case, appears as a persistent entity, remembering and reasoning, while the primary self was at the same time in command of their common body. Leontine not only caused Leonie to untie and retie her apron, but she enjoyed the fun, remembered it, and told it the next day.

Again Leonore was as much ashamed of Leontine's flippancy as Leontine was of Leonie's stupidity.

"You see well enough," she said, "that I am not that prattler, that madcap. We do not resemble each other in the least."

In fact, she sometimes gave Leontine good counsel in regard to her behavior, and in a peculiar manner - by producing the hallucination of hearing a voice, thus again showing the conscious activity of the submerged self while a primary self was at the same time dominant and active. As Dr. Janet relates the incident, Leontine was one day in an excited, hysterical condition, noisy and troublesome with her chatter, when suddenly she stopped her senseless talk and cried out with terror: