She slowly opens her eyes, probably smiles, and looks a little foolish at having slept. He inquires how she feels. She replies:

"I feel remarkably well - so rested - as though I had slept a whole night."

"How is your head? "

(Looking surprised.) "It is quite well - the pain is all gone."

"Very well," he says. "You will continue to feel better and stronger, and you will have good sleep at night."

And so it proves. Bernheim or a pupil of his would sit, or perhaps stand, near his patient, and in a quiet but firm voice talk of sleep.

"Sleep is what you need. Sleep is helpful and will do you good. Already, while I am talking to you, you are beginning to feel drowsy. Your eyes are tired; your lids are drooping; you are growing more and more sleepy; your lids droop more and more."

Then, if the eyelids seem heavy, he presses them down over the eyes, all the time affirming sleep. If sleep comes, he has succeeded; if not, he resorts to gestures, passes, the steady gaze, or whatever he thinks likely to aid his suggestion.

When the patient is asleep he suggests that when she awakes her pains and nervousness will be gone, and that she will have quiet and refreshing sleep at night. What is the condition of the patient while under the influence of this induced sleep? Pulse and respiration are little, if at all, changed; they may be slightly accelerated at first, and later, if very deep sleep occurs, they may be slightly retarded. Temperature is seldom changed at all, though, if abnormally high before the sleep is induced, it frequently falls during the sleep.

If the hand be raised, or the arm be drawn up high above the head, generally it will remain elevated until it is touched and replaced, or the patient is told that he can let it fall, when he slowly lowers it.

In many cases the limbs of the patient may be flexed or the body placed in any position, and that position will be retained for a longer or shorter period, sometimes for hours, without change. Sometimes the condition is one of rigidity so firm that the head may be placed upon one chair and the heels upon another, and the body will remain stiff like a bridge from one chair to the other, even when a heavy weight is placed upon the middle of the patient's body or another person is seated upon it. This is the full cataleptic condition.

Sometimes the whole body will be in a condition of anaesthesia, so that needles may be thrust deep into the flesh without evoking any sign of pain or any sensation whatever. Sometimes, when this condition of anaesthesia does not appear with the sleep, it may be induced by passes, or by suggesting that a certain limb or the whole body is without feeling. In this condition the most serious surgical operations have been performed without the slightest suffering on the part of the patient.

From the deep sleep the patient often passes of his own accord into a condition in which he walks, talks, reads, writes, and obeys the slightest wish or suggestion of the hypnotizer - and yet he is asleep. This is called the alert stage, or the condition of somnambulism, and is the most peculiar, interesting, and wonderful of all.

The two chief stages of the hypnotic condition, then, are, first: the lethargic stage; second, the alert stage.

The stage of lethargy may be very light - a mere drowsiness - or very deep - a heavy slumber - and it is often accompanied by a cataleptic state, more or less marked in degree.

The alert stage may also vary and may be characterized by somnambulism, varying in character from a simple sleepy "yes" or "no" in answer to questions asked by his hypnotizer, to the most wonderful, even supranormal, mental activity.

From any of these states the subject may be awakened by his hypnotizer simply making a few upward passes or by saying in a firm voice, "All right, wake up," or, again, by affirming to the patient that he will awake when he (the hypnotizer) has counted up to a certain number, as, for instance, five.

Generally, upon awakening, the subject has no knowledge or remembrance of anything which has transpired during his hypnotic condition. This is known as amnesia. Sometimes, however, a hazy recollection of what has happened remains, especially if the hypnotic condition has been only slight.

Up to the present time hypnotism has been studied from two separate and important standpoints and for two well-defined purposes : (i) For its therapeutic effects, or its use in the treatment of disease and relief of pain; (2) for the mental or psychical phenomena which it presents.

The following cases will illustrate its study and use from the therapeutic standpoint - and, first, two cases treated by the old mesmerists, 1843-53. They are from reports published in The Zoist: -

(1) Q. I. P., a well-known artist, fifty years ago, had been greatly troubled and distressed by weak and inflamed eyes, accompanied by ulceration of the cornea, a condition which had lasted more than four years. He was never free from the disease, and often it was so severe as to prevent work in his studio, and especially reading, for months at a time. He had been under the care of the best oculists, both in New York and London, for long periods and at different times, but with very little temporary and no permanent relief.

He was urged, as a last resort, to try animal magnetism, as it was then called. Accordingly, he consulted a mesmeric practitioner in London, and was treated by passes made over the back of the head and down the spine and from the centre of the forehead backward and outward over the temples and down the sides of the head.

All other treatment was discontinued. No mesmeric phenomena of any kind were produced, not even sleep, but from the first day a degree of comfort and also improvement was experienced.

The treatment was given one hour daily for one month. The improvement was decided and uninterrupted, such as had never before been experienced under any form of medical or surgical treatment, no matter how thoroughly carried out. The general health was greatly improved, and the eyes were so much benefited that they could be relied upon constantly, both for painting and reading, and the cure was permanent.