When the continuance of a term is made to depend on a condition, or there is a reservation of a right of re-entry for breach of the covenants of the lease, an entry in either instance puts an end to the term.147 The courts are, however, rather averse to enforcing forfeitures;148 and when the breach is due to accident or mistake, and can be compensated in damages, as it usually can be in the case of rent, relief will be granted the tenant.149 The relief does not extend to cases where the damages are not a mere matter of computation, as where there is a breach of a covenant not to assign, or a covenant to repair.150
143 They pass by a devise of "personal estate." Brewster v. Hill, 1 N. H. 350.
144 Martin v. Tobin, 123 Mass. 85; Sutter v. Lackmann, 39 Mo. 91; Mur-dock v. Ratcliff, 7 Ohio, 119. But the rule Is otherwise in a few states, by statute. 2 Shars. & B. Lead. Cas. Real Prop. 40. The lessee's estate continues liable for the rent. Hutchings v. Bank, 91 Va. 68, 20 S. E. 950.
145 Lewis v. Wilkins, Phil. Eq. (N. C.) 303.
146 Smith v. Snyder, 108 Pa. St. 541, 32 Atl. 64; Bedford v. M'elherron, 2 Serg. & R. 49; Ackland v. Lutley, 9 Adol. & E. 879; Poppers v. Meagher, 148 111. 192, 35 N. E. 805; Dimpky v. Goodlander, 12 Ind. App. 609, 40 N. E. 924; Williams v. Mershon (N. J. Sup.) 30 Atl. 019; Montgomery v. Willis, 45 Neb. 434, 63 N. W. 794. And the tenant becomes a wrongdoer if he refuses to surrender possession. Frost v. Iron Co., 12 Misc. Rep. 34S, 33 N. Y. Supp. 654; Jackson v. Farkhurst, 5 Johns. (N. Y.) 128; Ellis v. Paige, 1 Pick. (Mass.) 43; Bedford v. M'elherron, 2 Serg. & R. (Pa.) 49.
Ke-entry for forfeiture is optional with the lessor.151 The lessee cannot insist upon it, and so avail himself of his own breach.152 Acceptance of rent accruing after a breach will be a waiver of the forfeiture,153 but acceptance of rent due before the breach will not.154 Other acts of the landlord may also constitute a waiver.155
147 See Carnegie Nat. Gas Co. v. Philadelphia Co., 158 Pa. St. 317, 27 Atl. 951; Heinouer v. Jones, 159 Pa. St. 228, 28 Atl. 228. In a few states the statutes require a short notice. 1 Stim. Am. St. Law, §§ 2054, 2055.
148 see Sommers v. Reynolds, 103 Mich. 307, 61 N. W. 501; Drake v. Lacoe, 157 Pa. St. 17, 27 Atl. 538. When there is a clause of forfeiture for nonpayment of rent a demand must be made therefor on the land, at the front door of the house, if there is a house, and at a convenient time before sunset of the very day the rent falls due, unless a demand is dispensed with by the terms of the lease. 2 Tayl. Landl. & Ten. § 493; Smith v. Whit-beck, 13 Ohio St. 471; Jackson v. Harrison, 17 Johns. (N. Y.) 66; Van Rensselaer v. Snyder, 9 Barb. (N. Y.) 302; Connor v. Bradley, 1 How. 211; Fay-lor v. Brice, 7 Ind. App. 551, 34 N. E. 833. Cf. Haynes v. Investment Co., 35 Neb. 766, 53 N. W. 979. But see Shanfelter v. Horner (Md.) 32 Atl. 184. Under the statutes of many states, the landlord may terminate the tenancy, for nonpayment of rent, without any agreement to that effect. 1 Stim. Am. St. Law, § 2054.
149 Baxter v. Lansing, 7 Paige (N. Y.) 350; Gregory v. Wilson, 9 Hare, 683; Nokes v. Gibbon, 3 Drew. 681. But see Rolfe v. Harris, 2 Price, 206, note; Cage v. Russel, 2 Vent. 352.
150 2 Tayl. Landl. & Ten. (8th Ed.) 8L
151 Cochran v. Pew. 159 Pa. St. 184, 28 Atl. 219. Or his assignee, who may also claim it 2 Tayl. Landl. & Ten. (8th Ed.) 75. And see Wilson v. Goldstein, 152 Pa. St. 524, 25 Atl. 493.
152 Gibson v. Oliver, 158 Pa. St. 277, 27 Atl. 961; Brady v. Nagle (Tex. Civ. App.) 29 S. W. 943; Arnsby v. Woodward, 6 Barn. & C. 519; Reid v. Parsons, 2 Chit. 247.
153 Jackson v. Sheldon, 5 Cow. (N. Y.) 448; Bleecker v. Smith, 13 Wend.
154 See note 154 on following page. 155 See note 155 on following page.
An estate for years may be terminated by a merger, as where the fee is acquired by the tenant for years.156
An estate for years will merge in a life estate,157 or in another term of years,158 as well as in the fee.