According to common-law rules, if an estate is granted to a man without adding any words of limitation, he takes a life estate. Therefore, no special words need be used to create a life estate,10 except where there is a statutory rule that a fee simple is presumed to be conveyed unless otherwise restricted.11 Since an estate for one's own life is considered a higher interest than an estate per autre vie, where the conveyance does not specify for whose life the grantee is to hold, he takes it for his own life. But where the grantor can only give an estate for his own life, as where he is himself a tenant for life or a tenant in tail, then the grantee will take only what the grantor can lawfully give;12 that is, an es8 Brudnel's Case, 5 Coke, 9a. See Clark v. Owens, 18 N. Y. 434; Dale's Case, Cro. Eliz. 182.
9 Brudnel's Case, 5 Coke, 9a.
10 Jackson v. Embler, 14 Johns. (N. Y.) 198; Trusdell v. Lehman, 47 N. J. Eq. 218, 20 Atl. 391; Hunter v. Bryan, 5 Humph. (Tenn.) 47; Gray v. Packer, 4 Watts & S. (Pa.) 17; Jackson v. Van Hoesen, 4 Cow. (N. Y.) 325; Kearney v. Kearney, 17 N. J. Eq. 59; Wusthoff v. Dracourt, 3 Watts (Pa.) 240; Boze-man v. Bishop, 94 Ga. 459, 20 S. E. 11. So a life estate may be created by a reservation. Doe v. Grady, 2 Dev. (N. C.) 395; Hodges v. Spicer, 79 N. C. 223; Richardson v. York, 14 Me. 21G. Or by a quitclaim to a co-tenant in common. Mckinney v. Stacks, 6 Heisk. (Tenn.) 284.
11 See ante, p. 37. As to what words will pass only a life estate, see Corby v. Corby, 85 Mo. 371; Leaper v. Neagle, 94 N. C. 338; Dew v. Kuehn, 64 Wis. 293, 25 N. W. 212; Lowrie v. Ryland, 65 Iowa, 584, 22 N. W. 686; Jones' Ex'rs v. Stills, 19 N. J. Eq. 324; Sheafe v. Cushing, 17 N. H. 508; Jossey v. White, 28 Ga. 265; Schaefer v. Schaefer, 147 111. 337, 31 N. E. 136; Robinson v. Robinson, 89 Va. 910, 14 S. E. 916. And cf. Beall's Lessee v. Holmes, 0 Har. & J. (Md.) 205; Jackson v. Wells, 9 Johns. (N. Y.) 222; Wheaton v. Andress, 23 Wend. (N. Y.) 452; Moore v. Dimond, 5 R. I. 121; In re Frothlng-ham, 63 Hun, 430, 18 N. Y. Supp. 695; Allen v. Boomer, 82 Wis. 364, 52 N. W. 426; Kiene v. Gruehle, 85 Iowa, 312, 52 N. W. 232.
12 Jackson v. Mancius, 2 Wend. (N. Y.) 357; Rogers v. Moore, 11 Conn. 553; Bell v. Twilight, 22 N. H. 500.