The ownership of land prima facie includes the soil or earth, and also the minerals in or on the ground, and consequently the tenant in fee simple of the land is ordinarily the owner of all deposits or strata of clay, stone, iron, and other mineral substances,14 and such substances, while thus in place are things of a real, and not a personal character.15 The minerals or the soil ticles by Hon. Simeon E. Baldwin and Arthur K. Kuhn, Esq., Davids, Law of Motor Vehicles?, Sec.Sec. 289-292.

11. Co. Litt. 4a; 2 Blackst. Comm. 18; Adam v. Briggs Iron Co., 7 Cush. (Mass.) 361; Hague v. Wheeler, 157 Pa. St. 324.

12. Pile v. Pedrick, 167 pa. 296, 46 Am. Rep. 677, 31 Atl. 646; Buckingham v .Elliott, 62 Miss 296, 52 Am. Rep. 188; Milton v. Puffer, 207 Mass. 416, 93 N. E 634.

13. Stoughton v. Leigh, 1 Taunt. 402; Wilkinson v. Proud. 10 Mees. & W. 33; Lillibridge v. Lackawanna Coal Co., 143 Pa. 203, 13 L. R. A. 627, 24 Am. St. Rep. 544, 22 Atl. 1035; Lee v. Bum-gardner. 86 Va. 315, 10 S. E. 3. See Post, Sec. 253.

14. Egremont Burial Board v. Egremont Iron Ore Co., 14 Ch. Div. 158; Bogard v. Ananda Con-sol. Gold Min. Co., 32 Colo. 32, 74 Pac. 882; Lacustrine Fertilizer Co. v. Lake Guano & Fertilizer Co. 82 N. Y. 476; Oregon Iron Co. v. Hughes. 47 Ore. 313, 8 Am. Cas. 556, 8I Pac. 572.

So it was held that an aerolite constitutes a part of the land on which it falls and belongs to the owner thereof. Goddard v. Win-chell, 86 Iowa, 71, 17 L. R. A. 788, 11 Am. St. Rep. 481, 52 N. W. 1124.

15. People v. Williams, 35 Cal. 671; Catlin Coal Co. v. Lloyd, 176 111. 275, 52 N. E. 144; Cherokee & Pittsburg Coal & Min. Co. v. Crawford County, 71 Kan. 276, 80 Pac. 601; Delaware & Hudson Canal Co. v. Hughes, 183 Pa. 66,

Sec. 253]

Rights of Enjoyment.

The part of the land consisting of minerals, or of specified minerals, may be the subject of separate ownership, this being the result either of a transfer of the minerals by the owner of the land,18 or of a transfer of the land with an exception of the minerals.19 Such a transfer or exception of minerals in place has been held to be established when there was in terms a grant or reservation of the right to take the minerals until exhaustion.19a and is purely personal.24

38 L. R. A. 826, 63 Am. St. Rep. 743, 38 Atl. 568.

16. Forbes v. Gracey, 94 U. S. 762, 24 L. Ed. 313; McGonigle v.

Atchison, 33 Kan. 726: Brown v. Morris, 83 N. C. 251; Lyon v.

Gormley, 53 Pa. St. 261; Lehigh Coal Co. v. Wilkesbarre & E. R. Co., 187 Pa. 145, 41 Atl. 37; Noble v. Sylvester, 42 Vt. 146. But they remain things of a real nature if removed by natural causes. State v. Burt, 64 N. C. 619; Lyon v. Gormley, 53 Pa. St. 261; McGonigle v. Atchison, 33 Kan. 726.

17. See Lacustrine Fertilizer Co. v. Lake Guano & Fertilizer Co., 82 N. Y. 476; Waskey v. Mc-Naught, 163 Fed. 929, 90 C. C. A. 289; Steinfield v. Omega Copper Co., 16 Ariz. 230, 141 Pac. 847.

18. Stoughton v. Leigh, 1 Taunt. 402; Brand v. Consolidated Coal Co., 219 111. 543, 76 N. E. 849; Kincaid v. McGowan, 88 Ky. 91,

13 L. R. A. 289, 4 S. W. 802; Chester Emery Co. v. Lucas, 112 Mass. 424; Wardell v. Watson, 93 Mo. 107; Edwards v. McClurg, 39 Ohio St. 41; Caldwell v. Fulton. 31 Pa. St. 475; Lee v. Bumgardner, 86 Va. 315, 10 S. E. 3; Wallace v. Elm Grove Coal Co., 58 W. Va. 449, 6 Ann. Cas. 140, 52 S. E. 485.

19. Barrett v. Kansas & Texas Coal Co., 70 Kan. 649, 79 Pac. 150; Kincaid v. McGowan, 88 Ky. 91, 13 L. R. A. 289, 4 S. W. 802. Snoddy v. Bolen, 122 Mo. 479, 24 L. R. A. 507, 24 S. W. 142, 25 S. W. 932; Marvin v. Brewster Iron Min. Co., 55 N. Y. 538; Sloan v. Lawrence Furnace Co., 29 Ohio St. 568; Whitaker v. Brown. 46 Pa. St. 197; Lillibridge v. Lackawanna Coa' Co., 143 Pa. 293, 13 L. R. A. 627. 24 Am. St. Rep. 544, 22 Atl. 1035.

19a. Town of Farmington v. Riley, 88 Conn. 51, 89 Ati. 900;