Andreas Carlstadt, a German reformer, born at Karlstadt, in Franconia, about 1483, died in Basel, Dec. 25, 1541. He adopted the name of his native town, but his real name was Bodenstein. He took his degree of D. D. at Wittenberg, was appointed professor in that university, and subsequently advanced to the dignities of canon, dean, and archdeacon. From the commencement of the reformation he was one of its most zealous adherents. In 1519 he held a controversy at Leipsic with Eckius on the doctrine of free will, in which he proved himself so decided an antagonist of Catholicism, that he was soon after excommunicated by the pope. This severity on the part of his opponents, and his own impulsive temperament, hurried him into a course, in 1521-'2, which Luther and Melanchthon severely condemned. He entered the great church of Wittenberg at the head of an infuriated multitude, and destroyed the crucifixes, images, and altars. He rejected the title of doctor, abandoned his professorship, applied himself to manual labor, and affirmed that learning was useless to Biblical students, who ought rather to toil like him with their hands than waste their time in the acquisition of unprofitable knowledge.

After Luther's return from the Wartburg, the old order of things was restored in the church of Wittenberg; but Carlstadt went two years afterward to Orlamunde, in the electorate of Saxony, where he forcibly took possession of the pulpit, creating disorder, which was again denounced by Luther. Expelled from Saxony, he brought forward the question of the real presence of the body and blood of Christ in the eucharist, avowing himself the antagonist of Luther, and defending the extreme Protestant view of that doctrine. Suspected of sympathizing with the peasants' war in Franconia, he continued to give umbrage to the authorities, and led for several years an unsteady nomadic life. Reduced to extreme poverty, he appealed to Luther, who granted him assistance and a domicile near Wittenberg, under the condition that he would refrain from giving utterance to his religious opinions. Having quietly spent about three years in agricultural and commercial occupations, he again came forward in 1528 with several violent publications; and to escape from the indignation of Luther, against whom he was believed to have planned conspiracies, he betook himself to Denmark, East Friesland, Stras-burg, and finally to Zurich, where he was kindly received and assisted by Zwingli. He was appointed archdeacon at Zurich, and from 1534 to the time of his death he was preacher and professor of theology in Basel. He had a numerous body of followers in Germany, who were denominated Carlstadtians or Sacramen-tarians. He was the first Protestant divine that married. - See Andreas Bodenstein von Karlstadt, by F. E. Jager (Stuttgart, 1856).