Attaixs. I. A general of Philip of Mace-don, and uncle of Cleopatra, whom Philip married, killed about 336 B. C. At the wedding festivities of his niece, he called upon the company in the presence of Philip and Alexander to beg of the gods a legitimate successor to the throne. This Alexander violently resented, and a brawl ensued, in which Philip took the part of his general and drew his sword upon his son. Alexander and his mother Olympias then withdrew from the kingdom. The assassination of Philip by Pausanias was the consequence of an outrage committed by Attalus which Philip refused to punish. Attalus, who was then in Asia, entered into a conspiracy against Alexander, but soon made overtures for submission, which the king disregarded. Hecatsens was sent into Asia with orders either to bring Attalus to Macedonia or assassinate him, and the latter course was adopted. II. Attains I., king of Pergamus, reigned from 241 to 197 B. C. He was the first ruler of Pergamus who bore the title of king, assuming that dignity after a victory over the Gauls. He made himself master of a large portion of Asia Minor, but was driven back to Pergamus by Seleucus Ceraunus and Achaeus. He was afterward an ally of Antiochus the Great against Achseus, and of the Romans and Rhodians against Philip of Macedon. The Macedonians invaded his territory, but failed to capture Pergamus. III. Attains II., king of Pergamus, surnamed Philadelphus, second son of the preceding, born in 200 B. C, succeeded his brother Eumenes II. in 159, died in 138. He adhered to the Roman alliance, founded Philadelphia in Lydia, and encouraged the arts and sciences.
IV. Attalus III., king of Pergamus, surnamed Philometor, son of Eumenes II. and Stratonice, succeeded his uncle Attalus II. in 138 B. C, died in 133. On his accession he murdered many of his relatives and friends. After a short reign of disorder he was seized with remorse and melancholy, withdrew from public affairs, and devoted himself to sculpture and gardening. He bequeathed his kingdom to the Romans. V. Flavins Prisons Attains, emperor of the West in 409-'10. He was born in Ionia, brought up as a pagan, and baptized by an Arian bishop. Being a senator and prefect of Rome at the time of the second siege of the city by Alaric, he was declared emperor by the barbarians in place of Honorius, and sent a message to Honorius, commanding him to cut off his hands and feet and retire to a desert island." At the end of a year he was deposed by Alaric on the plain of Ariminum. After the death of Alaric lie was again put forward by Ataulphus as a claimant of the purple; but he was taken prisoner and sentenced by Honorius to lose a thumb and forefinger and suffer banishment in the island of Lipari.