Augsburg, a city of Bavaria, situated between the rivers Wertach and Lech, at their confluence, 33 m. N. W. of Munich; pop. in 1871, 51,284. It is one of the most ancient German cities. Augustus, having conquered the Vindelicians in 12 B. C., established there a colony called Augusta Vindelicorum, on a spot, according to some, already inhabited and called Damasia. The Huns destroved it in the 5th century; and during the wars between l'hassilo, duke of Bavaria, and Charlemagne, suffered much. In 1276, having become ich by trade and industry, the city bought ts freedom from the duke of Swabia. Its prosperity increased continually. It was the principal emporium for the trade between northern Europe, the countries on the Medi-;erranean, and the East, previous to the discovery of America and the doubling of the Cape of Good Hope. Its merchants, includ-ng the celebrated Fuggers, possessed vessels on all the seas then known. Its greatest prosperity was toward the end of the 15th md the first part of the 16th century. The arts had here their focus, and the Holbeins and other names known in the history of German art belonged to it. After the war against the league of Smalcald the decline of Augsburg began.

Here on June 25, 1530, the Protestant princes submitted to Charles V. the confession of their faith, which bears in history the name of the "Confession of Augsburg." In 1555 the religious peace between that emperor and the Protestants was concluded here. At the dissolution of the German empire, Augsburg lost its privileges as a free city, and was incorporated with Bavaria. It is now the capital of the circle of Swabia and Neuburg, and is the seat of various superior administrative, judicial, and clerical boards. In Augsburg is published the Allgemeine Zeitung, one of the foremost political and literary journals of the world, issued by the great publishing house of Cotta. The city possesses a large public library, which is increasing daily. The collection of various manuscripts, records, and official documents in the archives of the city, is of great importance, chiefly for the history of the reformation. In 1870 there were 10 book-printing establishments, 34 publishing houses, 5 great cotton factories, 74 breweries, and manufactories of gold and silver wares, machinery, paper, etc. Among the new public buildings is a synagogue opened in 1807. Augsburg is a considerable commercial and financial centre, having 24 bankers.

The history of the ancient free city is contained in vols. iv. and v. of the Chro-niken der deutschen Stadte (Leipsic, 1865-17).

Angsburg.

Angsburg.