Augusta, a N. W. county of Virginia, bordering on West Virginia and the Blue Ridge; area, 900 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 28,763, of whom 6,737 were colored. It was distinguished for its loyalty to the revolutionary cause, for which it was commended by Washington. The surface is elevated and uneven; the soil, which is drained by the sources of the Shenandoah and James rivers, is calcareous, and one of the most fertile in the state. In 1870 the county produced 463,276 bushels of wheat, 29,835 of rye, 280,380 of Indian corn, 234,492 of oats, 19,671 tons of hay, 23,291 lbs. of wool, and 353,335 of butter. The quantity of hay was greater than in any other county of the state, and of wheat and butter than in any other except Loudon. Extensive beds of anthracite coal have been opened. The celebrated Wyer's or Wier's cave, Madison cave, and the Chimneys are in this county. Capital, Staunton.
Augusta, a city of Maine, capital of the state and of Kennebec county, situated at the head of sloop navigation on the Kennebec river, 43 m. from its mouth, 63 m. by railroad N. N. E. of Portland, 72 m. S. W. of Bangor, and 171 m. N. N. E. of Boston; pop. in 1860, 7,609; in 1870, 7,808. The city lies on both sides of the river, which is spanned by a bridge 520 ft. long. It is well laid out, and has many handsome buildings and a great abundance of shade trees and shrubbery. The state house, built of white granite, is considered the handsomest in New England except that of Montpelier, Yt.; the court house is the best and most convenient in the state; and the Maine insane asylum is a splendid granite structure, overlooking a landscape of peculiar beauty. The United States arsenal is on the E. side of the river. Just above the city a dam 1,000 ft. long provides an immense water power, while canals at the E. end render the river navigable N. of Augusta. The Maine Central railroad (Augusta division) runs through the city. There are 8 churches, 7 hotels, 5 newspapers (1 daily and 4 weekly), 3 banks, and 2 savings institutions. Lumber forms the chief manufacturing interest.
An extensive cotton factory has recently been erected here.
Augusta, a city of Georgia, capital of Richmond county, at the head of navigation on the Savannah river, 132 m. by railroad N. N. W. of the city of Savannah, and 137 m. N. W. of Charleston, S. C.; pop. in 1860, 12,493, of whom 4,049 were colored; in 1870, 15,386, of whom 6,390 were colored. It was laid out in 1735, and became an important point in military operations during the revolutionary war, being alternately in the possession of the royal troops and the Americans. The city was in-, corporated in 1798, and the chief magistrate bore the appellation of intendant until 1818, when the first mayor was elected. The city is very handsomely laid out on an extended plain on the W. bank of the Savannah river, with wide streets crossing each other at right angles. The principal business thoroughfare, Broad street, is 2 m. long and 165 ft. wide. Greene street, the most beautiful in the city, is 168 ft. wide, and has a row of stately shade trees on either side along its entire length. The principal buildings are the city hall, masonic hall, odd fellows' hall, and the opera house.
The city hall was completed in 1824 at a cost of $100,000. In front of it stands a granite monument 45 ft. high, erected by the city in 1849 to the memory of Hall, Gwinnett, and Walton, signers of the Declaration of Independence. An orphan asylum, 178 ft. by 78, is building at a cost of $150,000. The medical college of Georgia, situated here, in 1868 had 8 professors, 97 students, and a library of 4,000 volumes. The city water works were completed at a heavy cost in 1861. The water is drawn from the canal and forced into a tank holding 185,000 gallons in a cylindrical brick tower standing 115 ft. above the general level of the city. The Augusta canal, 9 m. long, nrings the waters of the Savannah river near the city, some 40 ft. above the level, and thus affords inexhaustible power for factories. Chief among these is the "Augusta Factory," with 508 looms, employing 500 hands and producing in 1871 8,527,728 yards of cloth. There are 5 extensive flouring mills, which in 1871 consumed about 409,000 bushels of corn and wheat.
In 1871 the city contained 6 banks, 4 founderies (besides the extensive foundery and machine shops of the Georgia railroad), 2 tobacco factories, 4 hotels, 21 churches (8 of which are for colored people), 2 academies, an arsenal, several hospitals, and many benevolent societies. There were 700 white and 500 colored pupils enrolled in the public schools. There are 2 daily newspapers, 2 weekly, 1 semi-monthly, and 1 monthly published here. In 1869 the assessed value of real estate, exclusive of the Augusta factory property, was $6,300,000, and in 1871, $6,593,420. For the year ending April 1, 1869, the sales of cotton amounted to $8,246,867, and for the year ending April 1, 1871, $11,575,846. The bonded debt of the city on Jan. 1, 1871, was $1,355,-250, while the assets amounted to $1,302,610. Augusta has railroad communication with all the leading markets of the country. The Central railroad extends from Augusta to Savannah and Macon; the Charlotte, Columbia, and Augusta, from Augusta to Charlotte, N. C, via Columbia, S. C, being an important link in the great short passenger route between New York and New Orleans; the main line of the Georgia railroad extends from Augusta to Atlanta, with branches to Washington, War-renton, and Athens. The Macon and Augusta railroad affords connection with the former city, and the South Carolina railroad connects Augusta with Charleston, Columbia, and Camden, and with the Wilmington and Manchester railroad at Kingville. Several other railroads are projected, the most important of which is the Port Royal railroad to Port Royal, S. C, a distance of 110 m., which will give Augusta a shorter route to the seaboard. - The arsenal at Augusta was seized by the confederate authorities Jan. 24, 1861.