Austria (Ger. Oestreich or Oesterreich, eastern empire), officially designated since 1868 as the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, an empire of southern central Europe, bounded N. by the German empire and Russia, E. by Russia and European Turkey, S. and S. W. by Turkey, the Adriatic sea, and Italy, and W. by Switzerland and the German empire. It now consists of two main divisions, Austria proper and Hungary, each of which has its own special legislation and administration, though they are united under one monarch and have a single ministry for all matters of common interest. As the river Leitha constitutes a part of the frontier, Austria is also called Cisleithania, and Hungary Transleithania. But while in the higher political sense the Austro-Hungarian monarchy consists of these two divisions, the term is in fact the collective designation of several states, comprising a number of distinct nationalities, all under the rule of the house of Hapsburg. It is only since the accession to the throne of the emperor Francis Joseph that these countries have been actually consolidated. The centralizing policy of the crown was, however, partly defeated by the resistance of the Hungarians, who demanded and finally obtained the recognition of the historical rights of the Hungarian monarchy.
In this article we shall treat only of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy as a whole, and of the Cisleithan half of the empire. For the rest, see Hungary. - The total area of the empire is 240,381 sq. m., extending from lat. 42° 10'to 51° 4' N., and from lon. 9° 35' to 26° 35' E. Its population, according to the census of 1869, amounted to 35,904,435. The empire is a continuous territory, only two districts (Cattaro and Ragusa) being separated from the main body by small strips of Turkish territory. Of the 21 states or provinces (Kronlander or crown lands) which, according to the reorganizing statutes of 1849 and 1851, were to constitute the united Austrian monarchy (Oestrei-chische Gesammtmonarchie), the following 14, according to the new arrangement made in 1867, belong to the "countries represented in the Reichsrath," or to the Cisleithan provinces:
1, the archduchy of Lower Austria (Oestreich unter cler Enns), 7,655 sq. m., pop. 1,990,708;
2, the archduchy of Upper Austria (Oestreich ob der Enns), 4,633 sq. m., pop. 736,557;
3, the duchy of Salzburg. 2,767 sq. m., pop. 153,159; 4, the duchy of Styria (Steiermark), 8,671 sq. m., pop. 1,137,990; 5, the duchy of Carinthia (Karuthen), 4,006 sq. m., pop. 337,-694; 6, the duchy of Carniola (Krain), 3,857 sq. m., pop. 466,334; 7, the Coastland or Lit-torale, embracing the counties of Gorz and Gradisca, the margraviate of Istria, and the district of Trieste, 3,085 sq. m., pop. 600,525 (the three last-named provinces form the kingdom of Illyria); 8, the county of Tyrol with Vorarlberg, 11,325 sq. m., pop. 885,789; 9, the kingdom of Bohemia (Bohmeri), 20,064 sq. m., pop. 5,140,544; 10, the margraviate of Moravia (Mahren), 8,585 sq. m., pop. 2,017,274; 11, the duchy of Silesia(Sehlenm), 1,988 sq. m., pop. 513,352 (these 11 states were until 1866 members of the German confederation); 12, the kingdom of Galicia, including the former republic of Cracow (annexed by Austria in 1846), and the duchies of Auschwitz and Zator, both of which belonged until 1866 to the German confederation, 80,818 sq. m., pop. 5,444,689; 18, the duchy of Bukowina, 4,036 sq. m., pop. 513,404; 14, the kingdom of Dalmatia, 4,940 sq. m., pop. 456,961. Total area of the 14 provinces represented in the Reichsrath, 115,-925 sq. m.; total population, 20,394,980. This includes 177,449 soldiers, deducting whom the civil population amounts to 20,217,531. The aggregate population of these 14 provinces in 1880 was 15,588,142; in 1850, 17,534,950; in 1857, 18,224,500. At the close of the year 1871 the civil population was officially calculated at 20,555,370. Of the remaining seven provinces, Lombardy and Venetia have been ceded to Italy in consequence of the wars of 1859 and 1866; and the kingdom of Hungary, the kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia, the way-wodeship of Servia, the grand duchy of Transylvania, and the Military Frontier now belong to the lands of the Hungarian crown (the way-wodeship of Servia having however ceased to he a separate crown land and been incorporated with Hungary proper). - About five sevenths of the Austrian territory are mountainous.
There are three principal chains of mountains, each of them sending off many branches, viz.: 1. The Alps (Rhaetian, Noric, Carnic, Julian, and Dinaric), covering almost the entire southern belt of the German provinces, as well as Illyria and Dalmatia (see Alps); their highest peaks are the Ortler (12,852 ft.) and the Gross-Glockner (12,776 ft.). 2. The Carpathians, about 800 m. long, beginning at the confluence of the Danube and the March, near Presburg, sweeping in an arc to the confluence of the Danube and Cserna, on the confines of Walla-chia and Servia. (See Carpathian Mountains, and Hungary.) The bold and rugged granite cliffs of the Carpathians, in N. Hungary and E. Transylvania, rise to a height of more than 8,000 ft. above the level of the sea. 3. The Sudetic mountains, with the Bohemian forest and the Ore mountains (Erzgebirge, between Bohemia and Saxony), forming together an almost uninterrupted chain of granite and gneiss formation. The highest section of this chain, the Giant mountains or Riesengebirge, between Bohemia and Prussian Silesia, rises in the Schneekoppe, or Snow peak, to an elevation of upward of 5,000 ft. above the level of the sea. Besides these three great chains there are several parallel ranges of considerable height.
Thus on both sides of the Alps there extend limestone ranges, the northern ones towering up to the height of 9,840 ft. (the Dachstein, or Roof peak, on the boundary line of Salzburg and Styria), while the southern ones, reaching to the height of 10,903 ft,, cover nearly the whole territory of Illyria and Dalmatia, Again, the Carpathians are surrounded by sandstone mountains, which almost fill up the territory of Transylvania. Of large plains there are only two: the great Hungarian basin, covering about 40,000 sq. m., and the Galician basin, which is interrupted by several ranges of hills and covers about 20,000 sq. m. - The seacoast of Austria extends from the head of the gulf of Venice to the S. point of Dalmatia, on the E. side of the Adriatic, 1,036 m. Austria belongs to four of the great river systems of Europe, those of the Black sea, the Baltic, the German ocean, and the Mediterranean. Among the numerous streams the Danube is by far the most important; it is, in fact, the main artery of the Austrian empire, and may at no very distant period become for a large portion of southern Europe what the Mississippi is for the United States. The. Danube, being the largest European river after the Volga, enters Austria from Bavaria as a stream navigable at all seasons, but its channel formerly offered serious impediments to navigation, all of which have been removed or are in process of removal. (See Danube.) Steamboats were first introduced on the Danube in 1830. Since 1835 the Austrian steam navigation company has increased their number from year to year, until in 1869 it maintained 146 steamboats and propellers, besides 550 barges, scows, etc.
The entire length of the Danube in Austria is nearly 900 in., and its average width 600 ft. Most of its tributaries are navigable for small craft, and steam has been introduced on several. The river Theiss, in Hungary, the most considerable of them all, said also to have a greater abundance of fish than any other European river, is navigated by steamboats from Tokay down to the Danube; it has a length of upward of 600 m. The Save, which enters the Danube near Belgrade, is navigable for a large part of its course. Steamboats also ply on the Inn, on the Bavarian frontier, and since 1857 even on the Salzach, a smaller stream, emptying into the Inn. The other important tributaries of the Danube, in their geographical order, are the Traun, the Enns, the March or Morava, the Raab, the Waag, the Neutra, the Gran, the Eypel, and the Drave or Drau, all of which are navigable. The Moldau, tributary to the Elbe, in Bohemia, is also navigated by steamboats. The Vistula, Dniester, and Pruth rise within the Austrian empire in Galicia, the Elbe in Bohemia, and the Adige in Tyrol. - The lakes of Austria are numerous, though not very large. The Flatten or Balaton lake in S. W. Hungary has a surface of about 400 sq. m.
The only salt lake in Austria is the Neusiedler lake in W. Hungary, nearly 20 m. long, and from 5 to 7 m. wide. TheCzirknitzer lake, in Carniola, is remarkable as containing a number of subterranean cavities, through which its waters from time to time disappear and again flow in. - The climate of Austria is temperate and very wholesome. From the southern boundary up to lat. 46°, the average temperature is 54 1/2° F.; from lat. 46° to lat. 49°, it is 50° to 52°;beyond lat. 49° it is 48°. The winter is very severe in the mountainous districts, but sudden changes of temperature are not frequent. - Nature has endowed Austria with a greater variety of productions than any other European state. Platina excepted, all metals abound. Gold is produced in Hungary and Transylvania; silver and the best quality of European copper in Hungary; quicksilver in Carniola (the mine at Idria used to yield 12,000 cwt. per annum); tin in Bohemia; lead in Carinthia; iron almost everywhere (a single mine in Styria yields over 15,000 tons annually). The following are produced in smaller quantities: zinc (about 44,000 cwt. in 1869), arsenic (1,376 cwt.), antimony (11,786 cwt.), chrome, bismuth, and manganese.
Black tourmaline, alabaster, serpentine, gypsum, black lead, slates, flint, and marble abound in many portions of the empire. The precious stones found in Austria are: the Bohemian carbuncle, the Hungarian opal, chalcedony, ruby, emerald, jasper, amethyst, topaz, carnelian, chrysolite, beryl. The coal beds of Austria are considered almost inexhaustible. Of rock salt there is a bed several hundred miles in length in Galicia, of which only a small portion is worked at the gigantic mine of Wieliczka, near Cracow, a perfect subterranean city, or rather four cities, one below the other, extending in a labyrinth of galleries, and hewn into the salt rock 9,500 ft. from N. to S., and 3,600 ft. from E. to W. Of mineral springs Austria contains upward of 1,600, of which the most celebrated are at Carlsbad, Marienbad, Teplitz, and Franzensbad, in Bohemia; Ischl, in Upper Austria; Baden, in Lower Austria; Gastein, in Salzburg; Gleichenberg, in Styria; Bartfeld, Trentschin, and Parad, in Hungary; Mehadia, in the Military Frontier district. - The vegetable kingdom of Austria shows the same variety as the mineral.
Wheat is the staple produce of the German provinces and of Hungary; buckwheat is raised in the sandy regions; Indian corn, rice, and kidney beans are raised in Hungary; the finest varieties of apples and pears in Bohemia, Austria proper, and Tyrol; of plums, in Hungary. Hungary produces immense quantities of cucumbers, melons, watermelons, pepper, anise, licorice, poppies, chic-cory, sweet-flag, ginger, flax, hemp, and tobacco. Cotton is raised in Dalmatia, hops in Bohemia, saffron and woad in Lower Austria. The Hungarian wine (more than one half of the entire wine product of Austria) is an excellent article, some brands being justly counted among the very best wines of the world (Tokay, Menes, &c). About 68,000 sq. m. of the Austrian territory are covered with forests, mostly oak, pine, and hemlock, in the northern, and maple, stone pine, olive, laurel, myrtle, and chestnut trees, in the southern provinces. Horses are raised everywhere, but only those of the Bukowina are of a superior stock; sheep and horned cattle in Hungary and Galicia (buffaloes in Croatia and Transylvania); goats and hogs in Hungary. The silkworm has been introduced in Tyrol, Croatia, Slavo-nia, Illyria, and Dalmatia. Game is plentiful, deer, wild boars, and hares being found almost everywhere; black bears, chamois, lynxes, wolves, and beavers, only in some districts.
Pearl mussels are frequently found in several rivers and creeks of Hungary. - The increase of the population of the Austro-llungarian monarchy from 1850 to 1869 has been on an average 0.84 per cent. According to the general census of 1857, the monarchy had 37,754,-856 inhabitants. Since then it has lost two provinces, Lombardy and Venetia, with a population of about 5,000,000; but the natural increase from 1857 to 1869 has nearly made up this loss. The inhabitants of the empire live in 927 cities, 2,039 boroughs, and 73,252 villages. Of the cities, one (Vienna) has upward of 600,000 inhabitants; two, Pesth and Prague, have more than 150,000; 12 above 40,000; 6 above 30,000; 35 above 20,000; and 97 above 10,000. In no country in the world has the nationality question at present so great a political importance as in Austria. No official census of the nationalities has been taken since 1850. The following estimates of the strength of all the important nationalities of the empire in 1869 is taken from Schmitt's Statistik des dsterreichisch-ungarinchen Kai-serstaates (4th ed., 1872):
Total number in Cisleithania.
Per cent. in
Tot'l numb'r in
Per cent, in
Total number in
Czechs and Slovaks .........................................
Slovens (or Winds).......................
Croats and Serbs.................................
Of the Cisleithan provinces only Upper Austria and Salzburg are wholly German; in the other provinces the numerical relation of the principal nationalities, according to the same authority, was in 1869 as follows: Lower Austria - Germans 90 per cent., Czechs 6; Styria - Germans 63, Slovens 36; Carinthia - Germans 69, Slovens 31; Carniola - Germans 6, Slovens 93; Littorale - Germans 4, Slovens 42, Croats 21, Italians 31; Tyrol - Germans 50, Italians 39; Bohemia - Germans 38, Czechs 60; Moravia - Germans 26, Czechs 71; Silesia-Germans 51, Czechs 19, Poles 29; Galicia - Germans 3, Poles 42, Pwuthenians 44, Jews 1 1; Bukowina - Germans 7, Ruthenians 40, I Roumans 89, Jews 9; Dalmatia - Croats and Serbs 87, Italians 18. Thus the Germans may always be expected to control, when the nationality question is at stake, the provincial diets of Upper and Lower Austria, Styria, Salzburg, Carinthia, and Silesia. The Czechs prevail in Bohemia and Moravia, the Slovens (or Winds) in Carniola, the Croats and Serbs in Dalmatia. In Galicia, according to the above table, the Ruthenians exceed the Poles in num- ber; but the Poles, to whom the higher classes of society belong, have an undisputed control of the diet, and in general of the province as a whole.
The Germans, though only 35 per cent. of the population of the Cisleithan provinces, are the ruling race in this part of the monarchy, while the Magyars dominate in the lands of the Hungarian crown, although they likewise embrace no more than about 37 per cent, of the entire population. The number of languages or dialects spoken in Austria exceeds 20, but German is the highest official language in the Cisleithan, and Magyar in the Trans-leithan provinces. It is a significant fact that at a Panslavic congress held at Prague in 1848, the delegates of the different Slavic nationalities found themselves under the necessity of using the German language, being unable to understand the different dialects of their own tongue. The density of population is very unequal, but is generally greater in the eastern than in the western portions of the empire. The extremes are Lower Austria, which con-ta'ns Vienna (259 to the sq. m.), and Salzburg (55 to the sq. m.). - More than three fourths of the entire population of Austria acknowledge the religious supremacy of Rome; of these, in 1869, 23,954,233 were Roman Catholics proper, 3,941,796 United Greeks, and 8,279 Armeno-Catholies. The population connected with the Greek Oriental church amounts to 3,050,830; and that belonging to the Armenian proper (Gregorian) to 1,854. The Reformed church has 2,143,178 professors; the Lutheran, 1,365,835; the Unitarians, 55,070. The Jews number 1,372,300. The remainder belong to minor sects.
The Roman Catholic church in Austria has 11 archbishoprics and 42 bishoprics; 2 archbishoprics and 7 bishoprics belong to the United Greek, and 1 archbishopric to the Armeno-Catholic. The Greek Oriental church has 3 archbishoprics and 10 bishoprics. In 1869 the number of Roman Catholic convents in Austria was 9(55, containing 8,743 monks and 5,671 nuns. By the concordat with the pope, concluded in September, 1855, the Roman Catholic church in Austria received great prerogatives; but these were rescinded by the reform laws of 1868, and in consequence of the promulgation of papal infallibility as a doctrine of the church, the Austrian government in 1870 declared the concordat abrogated. The affairs of the Lutheran and Reformed churches are administered in the Cisleithan provinces by the evangelical supreme church council at Vienna and two general synods, one Lutheran and one Reformed. The Lutheran church is divided into 4 superintendences and subdivided into 15 seniorates; the Reformed church consists of 4 superintendences, which are divided into 6 seniorates.
The Jews have about 500 rabbis in the entire monarchy. - Public education has been in the course of thorough reorganization since 1848. In the Cisleithan provinces, it is chiefly regulated on the basis of the law of May 14, 1869. The number of common or primary schools has been steadily increased, until in 1869 it was 31,218, or one for every 1,159 inhabitants. The common schools are of two grades. In those of the lower grade reading, writing, ciphering, religion, the elements of history and natural history, singing, and gymnastic exercises are taught; in those of the higher grade (Burgerschulen), composition, arithmetic, geometry, bookkeeping, and drawing are added. In 1869, 2,852,843 children out of 3,624,295 went to the common schools. Education is compulsory, and in the Cisleithan provinces children are bound to attend school from their 6th to their 14th year. Nearly all the children of this age attended school in 1869 in Upper and Lower Austria, in Salzburg, Styria, Tyrol, Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia; but in Galicia, Bukowina, and Dalmatia, only one out of three children received an education.
The number of normal schools for the education of teachers was for the whole empire about 100. The middle schools (Mittelschuhn) are divided into Gymnasien (colleges), which prepare their pupils for the universities; Realschulen, which prepare them for the technical high schools; and Realgymnasien, recently instituted, which combine both courses. The monarchy in 1870 had 241 gymnasien, 20 realgymnasien, and 74 realschulen; the Cisleithan provinces 99 gymnasien, 19 realgymnaisen, and 49 realschulen. In 1871 Austria had 7 universities (Vienna, Prague, Pesth, Lemberg, Innspruck, Gratz, and Cracow), to which in 1872 a new one was added at Klausenburg in Transylvania, and 8 technical high schools (Technische Hoeh-schuleri), most of which have been recently reorganized so as to comprise a number of special schools. The universities in 1870 had 707 professors and 10,877 students; the technical high schools, 265 professors and 3,010 students. To the last-mentioned class of institutions may be added 2 mining academies, 1 agricultural academy, 4 commercial academies, and the academy for commerce and navigation at Trieste. Not included in the above statement are a number of special schools for theology, for law and political economy, for surgery, midwifery, and veterinary surgery, for commerce, trade, and navigation, for agriculture, for mining, the art schools, the schools for the education of military officers, and a large number of private schools.
The largest of the public libraries are the imperial library at Vienna, numbering 410,000 volumes; , the university library at Vienna, containing upward of 200,000 vols.; the university libraries of Pesth, Cracow, and Prague; and that of the national museum of Pesth. There are many museums, cabinets of science and art, galleries of paintings, etc, in the principal cities of the empire. Several splendid collections belonging to private individuals are always open to the public. - Before 1848 the most rigorous censorship rendered a well regulated public press an impossibility. During the revolution in 1848 these restraints were removed, but in 1852 a law for the regulation of the press gave the police absolute control over the political press, and restored the censorship in all but the name. In 1862 the government again found it necessary to grant freedom of the press; and after the reorganization of the empire in 1837, it was again confirmed by a law of Oct. 15, 1868. In 1870 there were published in Austria 185 political newspapers and 578 non-political. Of the former, 100 are in German, 17 in Bohemian, 11 in Polish, 5 in other Slavic languages, 11 in Italian, 32 in Hungarian, 4 in Roumanian, 2 in Gre3k, 2 in Hebrew, and 1 in French; of the latter, 336 in German, 121 in the Slavic languages, 20 in Italian, 91 in Hungarian, 5 in Roumanian, 3 in Hebrew, 1 in Latin, and 1 in French. Some of the large daily papers published in Vienna and Trieste are among the best and most influential of the continental journals. - In 1869 the number of public hospitals in Cis-leithan Austria was 408; of lunatic asylums there were 15; lying-in establishments, 19; foundling hospitals, 15; institutions for the sustenance of old and indigent persons, 979; poorhouses, 6,648. The number of foundlings provided for by the government exceeds 65,000. The immense hospitals of Vienna, established by Joseph II., are perhaps the best regulated in the world.
There are besides a number of hospitals connected with the convents, where over 20,000 persons are relieved annually, without distinction of creed or nationality. In the military hospitals 181,976 persons were received in 1869. Every provincial capital has an imperial loan office for the poor, the profits of which are made over to the treasury of the almshouse department. - The total value of the mineral produce of Austria in 1869 was set down at 89,415,465 florins (the florin is equal to 47 cents). Of this sum, more than one third (32,446,603) was the value of the salt produced. The yield of the gold mines in 1869 was 56,752 oz., that of the silver mines 1,339,-712 oz., that of copper 53,957 cwt., of lead 102,000 cwt. The total quantity of salt produced in 1869 was as follows: rock salt, 3,872,-424 cwt.; spring salt, 2,804,823; sea salt, 77,571; industrial salt, 861,988. The most remarkable increase has taken place in the production of iron and coal. The latest statistics, published in 1869, showed the production of raw or pig iron to be 6,087,830 cwt., and that of cast iron 753,563. The coal produced in Austria, which in 1838 netted only some 4,000,000 cwt., and in 1854 and 1855 full 30,000,000, in 1869 reached 146,000,000 cwt. - The Austrian empire may, as regards its agriculture, be divided into four sections: 1, the Alpine countries - Austria proper, Salzburg, Tyrol, Carmola, Carinthia, Styria, and the Lit-torale; 2, the eastern provinces - Hungary, Croatia, Slavonia, the Military Frontier, and Transylvania; 3, the northern provinces - Moravia, Bohemia, Silesia, Galicia, and Bukowina; 4, the southern province of Dalmatia. In the Alpine countries the density of the population compels the farmer to till even the steepest hillsides.
The narrow plains yield potatoes, barley for brewing, and fodder; on the sunny sides of the mountains the grape is cultivated extensively. The production of breadstuffs in these countries is not equal to the consumption. The agricultural condition of those portions of the eastern provinces covered by the Carpathian mountains is similar to that of the Alpine countries but the scanty products of these territories are largely made up by the surplus of the level country, which, with very few exceptions, is of extraordinary fertility, especially in the river bottoms. A large portion of the pasture land is entirely capable of cultivation, and would be put under plough but for want of labor. The most fertile regions, although thinly populated, produce a large surplus for exportation to the Alpine countries. The extensive pastures are used for cattle-raising. Draught cattle are exported to nearly all adjoining regions; beef cattle mostly to the Alpine provinces. Hog fattening is carried on upon a very large scale. The Hungarian wine and tobacco are noted for their excellent quality. In the northern provinces but few places are adapted to the culture of the grape.
Moravia, belonging to the basin of the Danube, has some large and fertile plains, but Bohemia is hilly to a great extent, Silesia entirely so, while Galicia, descending as it does from the Carpathians to the courses of the large streams, shows every variety of formation. Grain and potatoes are the staple produce of these countries, supplying the domestic demand. Breweries, distilleries, and beet sugar factories are numerous in these provinces. The following table shows the area in square miles of the productive soil, and of the arable, wine, meadow, pasture, and wood land, both of the Cisleithan provinces and of the entire monarchy, in 1869:
Meadows and gardens............
The aggregate value of the agricultural produce of Austria was estimated in 1857 by Herr von Kleyle, assistant secretary of state, at 2,500,000,000 fl., and in 1871 by Prof. Brachelli at 2,400,000,000 fl. The government of Francis .Joseph has endeavored to promote agriculture and cattle-breeding by agricultural fairs, exhibitions of implements, premiums for improved stock, the introduction of new branches of agriculture, and other measures; and particular attention has been paid to the American improvements of agricultural implements and machinery. The culture of some American plants has also been introduced, broom corn among others. The number of horses in Austria in 1869 was 3,578,513; of horned cattle, 12,515,212; of sheep, 19,005,398; of goats, 1,509,104; of swine, 7,051,473. - Austrian manufactures, whose existence may be said to date only from the reign of Joseph II., are now striving to rival those of every other European nation, England excepted. The number of hands employed in the manufacturing establishments in 1809 was 2,273,310; the value of their annual produce, 1,500,000,000 fl.
Of this sum, 80,000,000 fl. is the estimated value of the iron ware, 50,000,000 that of chemical preparations, and 20,000,000 that of glassware and looking glasses (equal in quality to the French). Hemp and flax are manufactured into goods worth 150,000,000 fl. The value of the woollen fabrics is upward of 140,000,000 fl. The number of cotton spindles in Austria in 1870 was 1,581,000; the total value of cotton goods produced, 120,000,000 fl. The quantity of cotton manufactured in Austria in 1850 was five times as large as in 1831. Since then the progress of this branch of industry has been comparatively slow. The manufacture of tobacco is monopolized by the government (the monopoly having been extended over Hungary, which formerly was excepted from it, in 1850). The most numerous and extensive industrial establishments are in Austria proper (chiefly in Vienna) and Bohemia, the fewest and smallest in Dalmatia and the Military Frontier. There are three principal centres of industry: Vienna, for the manufacture of all objects of luxury and musical instruments; Moravia, Silesia, and Bohemift, for linen and woollen fabrics and glassware; Styria and Carinthia, for iron goods and hardware.
The government endeavors to promote the growth of Austrian industry by establishing schools of mechanical arts, trade unions, industrial exhibitions, etc. In order to encourage inventors, the patent laws were entirely remodelled in 1852. - The commerce of Austria has since 1810 gradually grown into importance, although crippled until 1850 by a prohibitory tariff, and by the political organization of the empire, being at that time merely a dynastic union of different states, rendering the provincial boundary lines so many barriers against internal intercourse. At an early period the Austrian government took care to spread a perfect network of excellent commercial roads over the whole empire. The roads over the Alps, the Stilfser Joch, the Spliigen, the Semmering, and others, are justly counted among the most remarkable works of modern times. The first railway in Germany was built on Austrian territory, connecting Budweis and Linz (1832). The aggregate length of railroads (inclusive of horse railroads), on Jan. 1, 1871, was 0,324 m. Telegraph lines have been constructed in all directions. In 1870 there were in Austria 10,504 m. of electro-magnetic telegraph, with an aggregate length of wires of 50,870 m.
The number of post offices in all Austria was 4,707. The most important canal for commerce is the emperor Francis's canal, connecting the Danube and Theiss, and saving a circuit of 220 m. On July 1, 1851, the customs line between Austria proper and Hungary was abolished; on Feb. 1, 1852, a new tariff was published, by which the protective system was introduced in lieu of the previous prohibition, which was now limited to three articles of government monopoly, viz., salt, gunpowder, and tobacco. In 1852 the river duties on the Elbe, Po, and Danube were abolished. A postal union was concluded with most of the German states in 1850, and was followed in 1853 by a commercial treaty between Austria and the German Zollverein. On April 11, 1805, a new customs and commercial treaty was concluded with the German Zollverein, which, by considerable reduction of duties and the establishment of uniformity of regulations, greatly increased the commerce of Austria with the states of the Zollverein. Other important commercial treaties were concluded with the United States, Mexico, Persia (1857), Turkey (1802), Great Britain (1805 and 1809), France (1866), Belgium (1867), the Netherlands (1867), Italy (1807), the states represented in the German Zoll parliament (1808), and Switzerland (1808). Chambers of commerce and industry were introduced in Austria in 1850. Their rights and functions in the Cisleithan provinces were regulated by the law of June 29, 1868. In 1871 there were in Cisleithan Austria 42 chambers.
According to a treaty concluded in 1807 between the governments of Cislei-thania and Hungary, both these divisions of the empire constitute with regard to customs and commercial intercourse one territory, encircled by one customs boundary line, from which are only excluded Dalmatia, which constitutes a customs territory by itself, Istria and the Quarnero islands, the free ports of Trieste, Buccari, Zengg, Portore, Carlopago, the town of Brody in Galicia, and the commune of Jung-holz in Tyrol. The commercial intercourse between the two divisions according to this treaty is entirely free, and the goods carried from the one into the other can be subjected to only those burdens which may be imposed upon the products of the producing division itself. All treaties with foreign powers regulating commercial relations are concluded by the imperial government for both divisions of the empire.
Among the large moneyed institutions the Austrian national bank of Vienna (established in 1816) maintains the highest rank, although its importance is much more due to its intimate connection with the financial administration of the empire than to its commercial transactions. In 1869 it had 23 branches, nine of which were in the lands of the Hungarian crown. A most powerful institution is the Austrian Lloyd, at Trieste, a joint-stock company established by Von Bruck in 1833, and unrivalled in the variety of its enterprises. It is divided into three sections: one devoted to the insurance business and the collection of statistics for the maritime trade, the second (established in 1857) to ocean-steamship navigation, the third (established in 1849) to the promotion of literature and art. This company has gradually been developed into gigantic proportions, almost monopolizing the Levant trade on the eastern portion of the Mediterranean. It has established regular steamship lines between Trieste and almost every port on the Adriatic, AEgean, and Black seas. The number of its steamships in 1853 was 56; in 1870, 70. Another great institution is the Danube steam navigation company.
The first river steamboat in Europe built on the American pattern was built for this company in 1854. Early in 1856 the Credit-Anstalt at Vienna, an imitation of the Parissociete de credit mobilier, went into operation, the subscription to its stock having reached the enormous amount of 640,000,000 florins, or upward of $300,000,000; but the strong impulse given by this institution to speculation and stock-jobbing led at the beginning of the year 1857 to a violent financial revulsion. An extraordinary impulse was given to the development of large moneyed institutions in 1862 and the following years. The Statist isches Jahrbuch fur das Jahr 1870 (Vienna, 1872) enumerates 44 institutions of this kind in the Cisleithan provinces, all of which, with the exception of five, were established after 1862, and no fewer than 21 in 1869. The aggregate paid-up capital of these institutions amounted in 1870 to 231,800,000 florins. The following institutions had the largest capital: Austrian National bank, 90,000,000 fl.; Austrian Credit Institution, 40,000,000; Austrian Land Credit Institution (established in 1864), 9,000,000; Anglo-Austrian bank (1863),14,000,000; Franco-Austrian bank (1869), 8,000.000; Austro-Egvptian bank (1869), 4,000,000; Union bank (1870), 12,000,000. The number of savings banks in the Cisleithan provinces at the close of 1870 was 181, with deposits amounting to 285,300,000 fl.
The total value of the commercial movement of Austria (exclusive of precious metals) in 1870 is shown as follows:
Customs Territory of Dalmatia
In 1869 the imports into Austria from the German states represented a value of 301,900,000 fl.; the exports from Austria into the German states, 241,000,000 fl. - The development of the shipping of Austria since 1841 is shown by the following table:
Of these 5,767, carrying 267,134 tons, were ocean vessels; 91, carrying 4!),977 tons, and 17,749 horse power, steamships. The apparent decrease during the period from 1856 to 1871 is due to the loss of the Italian provinces. In 1870 the maritime commerce of Trieste amounted to 226,290,000 fl., viz.: imports, 125,870,000; exports, 100,420,000. Trieste is by far the most important seaport of Austria, and, besides Marseilles, perhaps the only one on the European continent which has advanced at a very remarkable rate. The following table shows the most important among the other ports of the empire:
Entries in 1869.
The fundamental law which divides the monarchy into two states or divisions bears the date of Dec. 21, 1867. According to this law, each of the two divisions (the "countries represented in the Reichsrath" and the "countries of the Hungarian crown") has its own constitution, but they are united under the same monarchy and have in common an imperial ministry (Reichsministerium) for the administration of those affairs which have been constitutionally defined as common to both parts of the empire. Such are the foreign affairs, nearly the whole department of war, inclusive of the navy, and the finances of the joint monarchy. Several other subjects, though not defined as common affairs, are to be equally treated according to principles from time to time agreed upon by the two legislatures. In this class belongs legislation on duties, on certain indirect taxes, and on railways in which both divisions are interested. For the countries represented in the Reichsrath the following fundamental laws are specially recognized as valid: 1, the "Pragmatic Sanction" of the emperor Charles VI. of Dec. 6, 1724, which regulates the order of succession and declares the indivisibility of the empire; 2, the diploma of Francis Joseph I. of Oct. 20, 1860, which introduces the constitutional form of government; 3, the six fundamental laws of Dec. 21, 1807, regulating the representation of the people, defining the general rights of citizens, the judicial, administrative, and executive power, and appointing an imperial court (Reichsgericht). The Austro-Hungarian monarchy is an empire hereditary in the Hapsburg-Lorraine dynasty.
After the entire extinction of the male line, the crown may be inherited by female descendants. The emperor attains his majority when 18 years old, and must belong to the Roman Catholic church. On entering upon the government, he must take an oath to support the constitution. He is addressed as imperial and royal apostolical majesty, and has three different titles, the shortest of which is emperor of Austria, king of Bohemia, etc, and apostolical king of Hungary. The emperor shares the legislative power with the representative assemblies of Oisleithania and of Hungary, and with the provincial diets. Without the consent of these bodies no law can be made, altered, or abolished. With regard to the affairs common to the whole empire, the Austrian Reichsrath and the Hungarian diet exercise their legislative rights through two delegations, consisting each of GO members, one third chosen from the upper and two thirds from the lower house. The delegations serve only one year, and meet alternately at Vienna and at Pesth. The members of the imperial ministry for the common affairs of the empire, namely, the ministers of foreign affairs, of war, and of the imperial finances, are responsible to the delegations.
The Reichsrath of the Cisleithan provinces consists of a house of lords (Herrenhaus) and a house of deputies (Ahgeordneten-IIaus). The upper house embraces all imperial princes who are of age, the chiefs of a number of noble families who have been declared hereditary members of the house, all the archbishops and prince-bishops, and an unlimited number of distinguished men whom the emperor may appoint as life members. The house of deputies in 1872 consisted of 203 members, chosen by the provincial diets from their own members for a term of six years. Their term ceases sooner, however, if they cease to be members of the provincial diet. If a provincial diet does not send delegates to the Reichsrath, the emperor has the right to order direct elections. The provincial diets exercise a legislative right with regard to subjects which have not expressly been reserved for the Reichsrath. These diets consist of the archbishops and bishops of the province, of the rector of the university, and of delegates chosen by the holders of large estates, by towns and other places, by the chambers of commerce and industry, and by the rural communities. Both the Reichsrath and the provincial diets are convoked annually. The ministers of Cisleithania are responsible to the Reichsrath, which may impeach them.
The decision in such a case is given by a special state court organized by the Reichsrath. Every citizen 30 years of age is eligible to the provincial diet, but the right of voting is made contingent on the payment of a tax, the amount of which is fixed by law. The particular ministry of Cisleithania consists of seven sections, namely: interior, worship and education, commerce, agriculture, the defence of the country, justice, and finances. The provinces or crown lands are governed by governors (Statthalter), or provincial presidents (Landesprasideriten). Municipal officers are elected in accordance with the imperial law of March 5, 1862, by citizens possessing a certain amount of property and paying a certain amount of taxes. The administration of justice was reorganized in 1851, and again by the fundamental laws of 1867. All privileged jurisdiction has been entirely abolished. There are three degrees of jurisdiction. The district courts and district collegiate courts (894 in 1869) have original jurisdiction in civil suits up to a certain value, and in petty criminal cases, and the county courts (Landcsgerichte), of which there were 62 in 1869, have original jurisdiction in all other civil cases and in all criminal cases; they have also appellate jurisdiction in cases tried by the district courts.
Offences of the press are, according to the law of March 9, 186!), tried by juries. The provincial courts (Oberlandesgerichte), of which there are 9 in Cisleithania, are the courts of last resort for cases tried by the district courts, and of second resort for civil cases tried by the county courts. The highest tribunal of the monarchy is the court of appeals (Oberster Gerictss- und Cassationshof), at Vienna. The civil law is administered according to the code of 1811. The criminal code of 1804 was amended in 1852. The number of persons sentenced for crime in Cisleithan Austria in 1869 was 25,665, or 1 for every 787 of the population. - The finances have at all times been the sore point of the Austrian administration. Having been utterly prostrated by the Napoleonic wars, their condition was slowly improving when the revolutions of 1848, and the consequent wars in Italy and Hungary, again brought Austria near the verge of bankruptcy. The government paper currency fell some 20 per cent, below par. The prospect had begun to brighten when the eastern war and the position of armed neutrality maintained by Austria once more destroyed every hope of bringing the income and the expenditure to balance each other. The income has been steadily increasing, but so has the expenditure.
By keeping a separate account
of the "extraordinary expenditure," the Austrian government organs showed an apparent improvement of the financial condition, but this was an illusion. The foregoing table. shows the excess of expenditures over receipts in some of the years following the revolutionary movements of 1848. Since the reorganization of the empire in 1867, there are separate budgets for the common affairs of the whole empire and for each of the two large divisions. In the budget for 1872 the amount needed for the common affairs of the empire is estimated at 110,647,498 florins, of which 95,165,007 were to be devoted to the army and 11,254,690 to the navy. From the receipts of the ministry of war, the excess of duties, and the incomes of the consulates, 17,208,883 were to be obtained; of the balance, 93,438,615, the Cisleithan provinces were to furnish 65,145,402, and the Transleithan provinces 28,293,213. The budget of the countries represented in the Reichsrath for 1871 fixes the revenue at 338,084,609, the largest items being 80,200,000 from direct taxes, 187,073,546 from indirect taxes, 33,461,058 from the state domain and from state institutions.
The expenses were to amount to 349,811,642 fl. (99,984,711 fl. interest on the public debt). Thus there would again be a deficit of 11,727,-033. The consolidated debt of Austria on Dec. 31, 1870, amounted to 2,572,733,402 fl.; the entire debt to 2,593,269,591, being an increase over 1869 of 3,000,000 fl. The aggregate debt of the provinces amounted in June, 1870, to 243,979,690 fl. - The army of the entire monarchy was reorganized in 1868. According to the new regulations the liability to military service is universal, begins with the completion of the 20th year, and must be rendered personally. The army is divided into the standing army, the navy, the landwehr, the reserve, and the landsturm. In the Cisleithan provinces military duty lasts 10 years (3 years in the line, 7 in the reserve). In the landwehr those who have been in the line and in the reserve have to remain 2, all others 12 years. The standing army and the navy are placed under the imperial minister of war for the common affairs of the empire; the landwehr and the landsturm (which is to comprise all men capable of doing military duty until the 50th year of age, but was not yet generally organized in 1871) are in each division of the empire placed under the minister for the defence of the country.
The standing army numbered in August, 1871, 254,041 men on the peace footing; in time of war the army, including the reserve, would number 820,811 men; while the landwehr numbered in addition 219,471 men. The subdivisions are: 1. Infantry: 80 regiments of the line, 14 regiments of frontier men, 1 regiment of Tyrol riflemen, 33 battalions of riflemen. 2. Cavalry: 14 regiments of dragoons, 13 regiments of uhlans, 14 regiments of hussars. 3. Artillery: 12 regiments of field artillery, 12 battalions of fortress artillery. 4. Two regiments of engineers and one regiment of pioneers. 5. Five corps for military transportation. Among the fortresses of Austria, Comorn, Olmutz, Peterwar-dein, and Temesvar are the strongest. The best naval ports are Pola, Trieste, and Cattaro. The Austrian navy in 1871 consisted of 47 steamers, among which were 11 ironclads, 20 sailing vessels, and 6 tenders; in all 72 vessels, carrying 522 guns. The corps of naval officers embraces 2 vice admirals, 5 rear admirals, 16 captains of ships of the line, 17 captains of frigates, and 18 captains of corvettes. - The present archduchy of Austria, anciently inhabited by the Celtic tribe of the Taurisci, afterward called Norici, was conquered by the Romans in 14 B. C. During the first centuries of the Christian era that portion of Austria north of the Danube belonged to the possessions of the Marcomanni and Quadi; part of Lower Austria and Styria, including the municipium of Vin-dobona (Vienna), to Pannonia; the rest of Lower Austria and Styria, with Carinthia and part of Carniola, to Noricum; Tyrol to Rha?tia. After the middle of the 6th century the river Enns constituted the boundary between the Teutonic nation of the Boioarii (Bavarians) and the Turanian Avars. Charlemagne annexed the country of the Avars to the German empire in 791. It was then called Avaria or Mar-chia Orientalis (eastern territory), and subsequently Austria, constituting since 843 the easternmost district of Germany. Having been conquered by the Magyars in 900, it was ultimately reannexed to Germany by Otho I. in 955. In 983 Leopold of Babenberg was appointed margrave of Austria. His dynasty remained in possession for 263 years, adding largely to its territory by the annexation of Styria and Carniola, by conquests from the Slavic tribes, and by inheritance.
Under the reign of Henry Jasomirgott Austria was erected into a hereditary duchy in 1156. On the death of Frederick II., the last of the Babenberg dynasty (1246), the German emperor Frederick II. claimed Austria as a vacant fief of the imperial crown. But neither he nor his son Conrad IV. succeeded in establishing his authority, and in 1251 the Austrian states elected Ottocar, second son of the Bohemian king Wenceslas, duke of Austria and Styria. Having refused to acknowledge Rudolph of Hapsburg as German emperor, Ottocar was defeated by him in 1276, and compelled to surrender to the victor all his possessions except those belonging to the Bohemian crown. From that time up to the present day the house of Hapsburg, whose original possessions were in Switzerland, has ruled in Austria. Rudolph's son and successor Albert obtained in 1301 the Swabian margraviate. At his death in 1308 Austria had already an area of 26,000 sq. m. Of his five sons, Leopold was defeated at Morgarten in 1315, while attempting to resubdue the revolted Swiss cantons, and Frederick III., surnamed the Handsome, was vanquished by Louis the Bavarian in his fight for the imperial crown in 1322. The possessions of their house, which were divided by them, were finally united in the hands of the fourth brother, Albert II. But another division took place among the heirs of the latter, when Albert III. got Austria proper, and Leopold all the rest.
Leopold was slain in battle against the Swiss at Sempach in 1386, hut his descendants remained in possession of Styria, and inherited the duchy of Austria in 1457, when Albert's line hecame extinct. Frederick IV. of Austria, having been elected German emperor, elevated Austria to the rank of an archduchy. His son Maximilian I., who succeeded him in 1493, obtained the Netherlands by marrying Mary, the heiress of Charles the Bold of Burgundy, and Tyrol by inheritance; and by marrying his son Philip to the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella he brought the Hapsburg family upon the throne of Spain. Philip's son, diaries I. of Spain, became, under the name of Charles V., German emperor in 1519. In 1520 and 1521 the latter ceded the Austrian possessions to his brother Ferdinand I., who subsequently also succeeded him in the empire. Ferdinand obtained the kingdoms of Hungary and Bohemia as successor, by family treaties as well as elections, to his brother-in-law, King Louis II., who fell in the disastrous battle of Mohacs against the Turks (1526). Thus elevated to the rank of one of the great European powers, the house of Austria possessed an area of 114,000 sq. m. But the possession of Hungary was not undisputed.
John Zapolya, waywode of Transylvania, aided by the Turks, tried to wrest the crown of St. Stephen from Ferdinand; and in 1529 Sultan Solyman had already invested Vienna, when the prudent generalship of Count Salm compelled him to retire. By a treaty concluded in 1538, Zapolya got eastern Hungary and the title of king, while the possession of Transylvania was guaranteed to his descendants. Even after Zapol-ya's death (1540) Ferdinand could reenter into possession of lower Hungary only by paying an annual tribute of 30,000 ducats to the Turks. The war with the latter had soon to be renewed, however, and Hungary remained a battlefield for more than a century. (See Hungary.) In 1564 Austria was once more divided among Ferdinand's sons, Maximilian II. (German emperor 1564-'76) obtaining Lower Austria, Hungary, and Bohemia; Ferdinand, Tyrol and Upper Austria; Charles, Styria, Ca-rinthia, Carniola, and Gorz. The final reunion took place about 100 years later. Rudolph II., successor to bis father Maximilian (1576-1612), one of the feeblest and worst emperors Germany ever had, was compelled to cede Bohemia, Hungary, and Austria to his brother Matthias, under whose reign (1612-19) the 30 years' war originated, by the revolt of the Bohemian Protestants against the Hapsburg dynasty.
Ferdinand II. of Styria, cousin of Matthias (emperor 1619-37), having defeated the rival king elected by the Bohemians, Frederick of the Palatinate (1620), led a war of extermination against the Protestants of Bohemia and Moravia, expelled them by thousands from his dominions, and annulled all ancient privileges of the states. In the course of the war, Ferdinand, shortly after the assassination of Wallenstein, was compelled to cede Lusatia to Saxony (1635). Ferdinand III. (1637-'57) brought the war to an end by the peace of Westphalia (1648). His son, Leopold I. (1657 -1705), by his misrule drove the Hungarians into alliance with the Turks. In 1683 Kara Mustapha besieged Vienna, which was saved only by the timely arrival of a Polish army, led by John Sobieski. Leopold's armies having reconquered Hungary, it was converted from an elective kingdom into an hereditary one (1687). Transylvania, too, was occupied. In 1699 Turkey, defeated in many sanguinary battles by Prince Eugene, ceded, by the peace of Carlovitz, the country between the Danube and Theiss rivers to Austria. Leopold's design to obtain the succession in Spain for his second son, Charles, was frustrated by the diplomacy of Louis XIV. of France. This occasioned, on the death of Charles II. of Spain (1700), the war of the Spanish succession, in which England, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Savoy took sides with the emperor against France, while Louis XIV. was aided by a powerful insurrection in Hungary, under Rakoczy. The victories of Eugene and Marlborough rendered success certain when, by the death of Leopold and of his eldest son Joseph I. (1711), his brother Charles became monarch of Austria. The allies, fearing the preponderance of Austria if the crowns of Spain, Naples, and Germany should be united again, desisted from their efforts against France, and a peace was concluded at Utrecht in 1713, by which the Spanish Netherlands, Milan, Naples, and Sardinia (exchanged for Sicily in 1720) fell to Austria, while Philip of Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV., was acknowledged as king of Spain. By this treaty the area of Austria was increased to 191,000 sq. m.
The treaty of Passarowitz (1718) secured new advantages on the Turkish border. Having once more waged war with France and Spain, Charles VI. lost Naples, Sicily, and a portion of Milan (1735); while the peace of Belgrade (1739) deprived him of nearly all the fruits of Prince Eugene's victories over the Turks. All these sacrifices Charles consented to, principally from a desire to obtain the general recognition of the so-called "pragmatic sanction," by which his daughter, Maria Theresa, was declared the heiress of the Austrian monarchy. Yet, immediately after his death (1740), her right of succession was contested by the leading powers, England excepted. Frederick II. of Prussia seized Silesia, which formed a part of the Bohemian dominions of Austria, and the elector of Bavaria assumed the title of archduke of Austria, and was elected German emperor, under the name of Charles VII. (1742). Nothing but the fidelity of the Hungarians saved Maria Theresa. By the treaties of Breslau and Dresden (1742 and 1745), she resigned her claims to Silesia; by that of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748), to Parma, Piacenza, Guastalla, and part of Milan. In the mean time the emperor Charles VII. had died (1745), and Maria Theresa's husband, Francis Stephen, grand duke of Tuscany, belonging to the ducal family of Lorraine, had been elected German emperor, as Francis I. In order to get Silesia back from Prussia, Maria Theresa conspired with France, Russia, Saxony, and Sweden against Frederick; but the seven years' war, in which Frederick covered himself with glory, resulted only in the reaffirmation of the status quo.
Francis, who died in 1765, was succeeded as emperor by his son Joseph II., who in Austria acted only as assistant regent until the death of his mother (1780). During this period eastern Galicia and Lodomeria were taken forcibly from Poland (1772), the Bukowina was obtained from Turkey (1777), and some smaller possessions were acquired in Germany by the peace of Teschen (1779), increasing the Austrian dominions altogether to an area of 233,741 sq. m. Joseph II., reversing the traditional policy of his predecessors, granted religious liberty to Protestants, discontinued the censorship of the press, reorganized public education, abolished 900 convents, and developed industry by a protective tariff; but his arbitrary measures exasperated the Hungarians, and drove the Austrian Netherlands into rebellion. The latter he tried to exchange for Bavaria, a project which was frustrated by the efforts of Frederick of Prussia. No less unfortunate in his war against Turkey, Joseph died from grief (or, as some believed, from poison) in 1790. His brother, Leopold II. (1790-'92), reconciled Hungary and the Netherlands, made peace with Turkey, and entered into the coalition against revolutionary France, but was unable to rescue his sister, Marie Antoinette. Thus his son Francis (1792 -1835) was, immediately on his accession to the throne, drawn into the whirlpool of the revolutionary wars.
By the peace of Campo Formio (1797) he lost Lombardy and the Netherlands, but obtained in exchange a large portion of Venetia. Two years before he had obtained western Galicia by the third partition of Poland. In 1799 Austria, allied with Russia, declared war against the French republic for the second time, but was compelled by Bonaparte to accept the peace of Luneville (1801), by which his brother, the archduke Ferdinand, was deprived of Tuscany, being compensated by Salzburg, Passau, Eichstadt, and the title of prince-elector. The public debt of Austria had now increased to 1,200,000,000 llorins. On Aug. 11, 1804, Francis proclaimed himself hereditary emperor of Austria (as such Francis I.), uniting all his dominions under the name of the Austrian empire. In the next year, having again gone to Avar with France, he was forced by the defeat at Austerlitz to sign a most ignominions peace at Presburg (Dec. 26, 1805). When, by the organization of the Rhenish confederation (Rhinebund), under the auspices of Napoleon (1806), the integrity of the German empire had been destroyed, Francis laid down the imperial crown of Germany (Aug. 6, 1806). A fourth time he determined upon a war against Napoleon, aided only by England (1809), but the result was most disastrous.
The peace of Vienna (Oct. 14,1809) took away from Austria about 42,000 sq. m. of territory, with 3,500,000 inhabitants. Utterly prostrated and driven into bankruptcy, Francis did not dare to withhold his consent when Napoleon proposed to marry his daughter Maria Louisa (1810), and in 1812 he even entered into alliance with Napoleon against Russia. But when the Russian campaign had broken Napoleon's power, and Prussia had risen against him, Austria joined in the alliance of England, Russia, Prussia, and Sweden (1813), and took a conspicuous part in the overthrow of the French empire. By the peace of Paris (1814) the Lombard and Venetian territories, now united into a kingdom, and all former possessions returned to Austria. In 1815 Francis, with Alexander of Russia and Frederick William III. of Prussia, formed the "holy alliance," for the restoration of the old monarchical system, Vienna having in the preceding year become the sent of the congress convoked for the purpose of reconstructing Europe. The suppression of liberal ideas and movements throughout Europe appeared to be thenceforth the principal object of the Austrian government, of which Prince Metternich was the soul.
Austria quelled the popular insurrections in Naples and Piedmont (1820 and 1821), aided by its diplomacy in the suppression of the popular movement in Spain (1823), favored Turkey in its struggle with the Greeks, and crushed the insurrections which in Italy followed close upon the French revolution of 1830. In the interior new attempts were made, though without success, to subvert the constitution of Hungary. The death of Francis, who was succeeded by his son Ferdinand (1835), made no change in the Austrian administration. At an interview of Ferdinand with the monarchs of Russia and Prussia the holy alliance was reaffirmed. In the oriental imbroglio of 1840, Austria sided with England and Russia. Unrelenting rigor was exercised in Italy. The Polish insurrection in Cracow (which in consequence was annexed to Austria) was accompanied by an attempt at rising in the adjoining parts of Galicia (February, 1846); but the government succeeded in quelling the movement by instigating the wrath of the peasants against the noblemen, many of whom were massacred. In the Italian provinces the opposition was fostered by the political reforms of Pope Pius IX., and the concessions to popular opinion wrung from the other Italian governments.
In Hungary the former parliamentary opposition of the diet had gradually grown into national enmity, especially so since the death of the palatine, Archduke Joseph (1847); similar movements appeared in Bohemia, while even in Austria proper the states insisted upon some participation at least in the administration of the government. From all these elements a storm arose in 1848 which brought the entire Austrian monarchy very near its ruin. On March 18, shortly after the revolution in Paris which drove Louis Philippe from his throne, the people of Vienna rose against the ministry, which made but a feeble show of resistance; Metternich was compelled to resign, and the emperor pledged himself to convoke an assembly of representatives of the people, to form a constitution for the empire. But at the same time the Hungarian diet, led by Kossuth, demanded and obtained an independent con- stitutional government, leaving merely a dynastic union with Austria. Outbreaks in Italy followed closely; Radetzkv was driven from Milan, and Palflfv surrendered Venice to the people. While thus momentarily successful in the provinces, the revolution created the direst confusion in the centre of the empire.
Of the revolutionists, some were in favor of uniting those provinces in which the German nationality predominates to Germany, leaving Hungary to herself, and favoring the union of the Italian states under a national government; while others were unwilling to hazard the position of Austria as one of the great powers, against the vague hope of a reconstruction of Germany. In Vienna the ministry of Count Fiquelmont, which had succeeded Metternich, proved its incapacity to grapple with the pending difficulties, and the political power fell into the hands of a central committee of the national guard and the students' legion. The emperor, unwilling to resort to extreme measures, fled to Innspruck (May 17). Another unsuccessful attempt of the ministry to break the power of the students led to the organization of a committee of public welfare (May 25), which, until the meeting of an Austrian parliament (July 22), exercised an almost unlimited control, compelling the ministry to make room for successors more subservient to the masses (July 8). When utterly prostrated in the capital, the imperial power began to gather strength in the provinces.
A popular outbreak at Prague was suppressed, after a bombardment of the city (June 15-16), by Prince Windischgratz. In Lombardy, Radetzky, who bad retired to Verona, opened an aggressive campaign in June, captured Vicenza, Padua, and other important places, and routed the Sardinian army (the king of Sardinia, Charles Albert, having taken sides with the revolted provinces) near Custoz-za, July 25. The national Hungarian ministry of Bathyanyi and Kossuth, preparing the way for an independent Magyar kingdom, awakened the fears and national antipathies of the Slavic races which would necessarily have formed part of this kingdom. Jellachich, the governor (ban) of Croatia, strengthened by the connivance of the imperial court, pronounced against the Hungarian government. Count Lamberg, the imperial commissioner despatched to Pesth, was there killed by the people (Sept. 28). Immediately the emperor ordered the dissolution of the Hungarian diet, and appointed Jellachich supreme military commander of Hungary. The diet, denying the authority of the emperor, organized a committee of safety, with Kossuth at its head. When the garrison of Vienna (Oct. 6) was departing for Hungary, the people of the capital, sympathizing with the Hungarians, rose once more.
They took the arsenal, and hung the secretary of war, Count Latour, at tmlrwindow of his office. The parliament declared itself permanent, and sent an address to the emperor asking for a new ministry and the removal of Jellachich. The emperor, who in June had returned from Innspruck to Vienna, again fled to Olmiitz. The masses of the capital armed themselves under the leadership of the Polish general Bern, preparing to resist the impending attack of the army. The garrison, joined outside the city by the remnants of the army of Jellachich, which had been beaten near Buda, and by the army corps of Prince Windischgratz, assaulted Vienna, Oct. 23; but the people made a desperate resistance until the 31st, when, the Hungarians having the day before been defeated almost before its gates, the city was taken by storm with immense slaughter. Many of the popular leaders were shot, among others Robert Blum, member of the parliament of Frankfort, Mes-senhauser, commander of the national guard, and Jellinek, editor of the "Radical." On Nov. 22 a new ministry was formed, of which Prince Felix Schwarzenberg was president.
The emperor Ferdinand was induced to resign, Dec. 2, 1848, in favor of his nephew, Francis Joseph, a youth of 18 years, whose mother, the archduchess Sophia, had been the leading spirit of the counter-revolutionary movement. The campaign against Hungary was commenced at once, but carried to a successful termination only by the powerful intervention of Czar Nicholas, the Hungarian main army, under Gorgey, surrendering (Aug. 13, 1849) to the Russians at Vilagos. (See Hungary.) Hungary, which had declared its independence, was treated as a conquered country. Many military and parliamentary leaders were shot or hung, and the prisons crammed with the unhappy victims of imperial revenge. Simultaneously with these occurrences the war in Italy had been terminated. Within a few days Gen. Radetzky routed the Sardinian army twice, at Mortara (March 21, 1849) and No vara (March 23), and obtained a peace by which Sardinia was obliged to reimburse Austria for the expenses of the war (15.000,000 livres). Venice, where an independent republican government had been organized under the lead of Manin, was invested by Radetzky, and forced to surrender, Aug. 23, 1849. - The revolution having been conquered, the Austrian government commenced the arduous task of reorganizing the monarchy upon a firmer basis than before.
The parliament, which after the bloody struggle at Vienna had been adjourned to Kremsir in Moravia, was dissolved March 4, 1849, and a constitution promulgated by the free will of the emperor, of which only the reactionary parts went into operation. The efforts of the national parliament at Frankfort to reconstruct the German empire, excluding Austria from it, were violently opposed by the Austrian government, and Frederick William IV. of Prussia durst not defy this opposition, backed as it was by that of Russia and France, by accepting the imperial crown offered by the Frankfort assembly. Still, by assuming the leadership of the counter-revolutionary movements in Germany, and aiding the petty princes to put down the people, Prussia obtained a preponderating influence in northern Germany, and made some efforts to centralize the confederacy, all of which were prostrated by the energetic policy of Prince Schwarzenberg. In 1850 the diplomatic conflict between Austria and Prussia seemed to point to a crisis; armies were put in motion, and a fight among some outposts had already taken place near Bronzell in Hesse-Cassel (Nov. 8, 1850), when at the last moment Prussia, in a ministerial meeting at 01-mlltz (Nov. 29), submitted to the demands of Austria, and the German diet at Frankfort was reestablished the same as it was before 1848; Austria, on her part, renouncing for the time being the idea of entering into the Germanic confederation with all her possessions.
The energy displayed in the management of foreign relations was manifested by the Austrian minister of the interior, Bach, in the administration of the internal affairs of the empire. All remnants of the revolutionary period wore annihilated, with one exception only, the abolition of socage. The constitution of 1849 was annulled Jan. 1, 1852; trial by jury was abolished; the public press crushed down with the utmost severity; and the influence of the clergy reestablished. Extraordinary efforts were made to develop the resources of the monarchy by encouraging agriculture, industry, and commerce. A new tariff was adopted, and negotiations were commenced with other German states for the establishment of a complete customs union with the Zollverein. Prussia, fearing lest her influence might be outweighed by that of Austria, opposed this movement; but several of the Zollverein states took sides against her, and the moment seemed to be near at hand when her objections would have been overborne, when Schwarzenberg's sudden death (April 5, 1852) brought on a change in the policy of Austria. His successor, Count Buol-Schauenstein, declined to press the propositions made by Schwarzenberg, and contented himself with the conclusion of a commercial treaty between Austria and the Zollverein (1853). The reconciliation with Prussia was completed at a personal interview of the emperor and Frederick William IV. On Feb. 6, 1853, another popular outbreak occurred at Milan, but was suppressed without difficulty.
A diplomatic rupture with Switzerland, where the Italian revolutionists had taken refuge, was the consequence. On Feb. 18 an attempt was made against the emperor's life by a young Hungarian, Libenyi. These events were important only so far as they tended to perpetuate the severe military rule. When, toward the end of 1852, the Montenegrins rose against the Turks, Austria sided with them, and Count Leiningen, who was sent to Constantinople (February, 1853), obtained full redress of their grievances. - At the time of the complications which led to the Crimean war, Austria proclaimed her neutrality, and on April 20, 1854, a treaty was concluded by Austria and Prussia, both pledging themselves to take an active part in the war only whenever the interests of Germany should appear to be endangered. The czar, indignant at what seemed to him base ingratitude on the part of Austria, endeavored by flattery to incite the smaller German states against her, and went even so far as to threaten an appeal to the Slavic races. Thus Austria was forced to change her neutrality pure and simple into an armed one.
She agreed with Turkey to occupy the Danubian principalities, advanced an army of 300,000 men toward the Polish frontier, and proposed to Russia the four points which afterward became the basis of peace. This proposition having been rejected, Austria assumed an attitude so threatening that the Russians were obliged to retire from Turkish territory. An Austrian army under Gen. Coronini entered Wallachia, and the war on the Danube was virtually at an end. By promising to the western powers an active support whenever they would pledge themselves to carry on the war in such a manner as effectually to cripple the Russian power, Austria induced them to determine upon the Crimean expedition. Now, at last, the active cooperation of Austria seemed to be certain; indeed, a treaty to that effect was agreed to by her Dec. 2, 1854; but in consequence of the tardy success of the allied armies before Se-bastopol and the unwillingness of the other German powers to accede to the treaty, she again fell back upon her former vague promises, merely offering her good offices to the contending parties. Not even when the Russians once more invaded Turkish territory did she move against them.
Plenipotentiaries of the belligerent powers met at Vienna in March, 1855, but were unable to agree upon a basis of peace, and finally adjourned. During the progress of the negotiations Austria had distinctly pledged herself to go to war if Russia should remain obstinate, when all at once she began to reduce her army on the frontier. Financial embarrassments and the cholera, which within a few months destroyed 25,000 soldiers, were the ostensible cause for this unexpected movement, the real cause being probably the assurance given by Russia that in any case she would adhere to those of the four points which involved the special interests of Austria. The emperor of the French, who formerly had been anxious to secure the friendship of Austria on any terms, began to look toward Russia, and eagerly seized the first opportunity of concluding peace (1856). During the war the work of centralization had been carried on by the Austrian government with apparent success. By the concordat with the holy see (1855) Austria gave back to the Roman Catholic clergy all the privileges and influence which had been wrested from them since the time of Joseph II. By stimulating public enterprise and promoting the material interests of all classes of the population, the government was earnestly endeavoring to make the people forget the events of 1848 and 1849. The military rule was somewhat relaxed, and a general amnesty was proclaimed for political offences. - The progress of internal reforms was soon again interrupted by foreign complications.
At the beginning of 1859 the Austrian statesmen learned from some ominous words addressed on new year's day by the French emperor to Baron Hubner that Cavour had succeeded in gaining over Louis "Napoleon to the designs of Victor Emanuel, and that they must be prepared for a war not only against Sardinia but against France. In this new complication the sympathies of Prussia and the other German states were strongly enlisted in favor of Austria, and even England and Russia showed a readiness to shield her from the impending danger. The diplomatic efforts of the neu-tral powers were, however, thwarted by an ultimatum which Austria hastened to address to Sardinia. This ultimatum not being accepted, Austria declared Avar, and appointed one of her most incompetent generals, Count Gyulay, commander-in-chief. The hope of the Austrians that they could overpower the Sardinian army before the French could come to its aid was not fulfilled. The Sardinian terri-ritory, which Count Gyulay had invaded on April 29, had soon to be evacuated.
The victory of the united French and Sardinian armies at Magenta, June 4, compelled the Austrians to abandon also Lombardy and to retire upon their famous quadrilateral, Mantua, Verona, Peschiera, and Legnago. After a second defeat at Solferino, June 24, the Austrians deemed it best to make peace, with Louis Napoleon. An otter of Prussia to take up arms as an ally of Austria, in defence of the treaties of 1815, was regarded as unacceptable because Prussia insisted on having in this case the chief command of all the non-Austrian German contingents. Austria consented in the preliminary peace of Villafranca (July 11), and in the definitive peace of Zurich (Nov. 10), to the cession of Lombardy. Napoleon, to whom the cession was made, transferred it in the peace of Zurich to Sardinia. The promises made by Sardinia that the dethroned dynasties of Tuscany, Modena, and Parma should be restored, and that the Italian states should form a confederation into which Austria should be admitted on account of Venetia, were never fulfilled. - The disastrous issue of the war was followed by new convulsions in the interior. Public opinion seemed generally to be agreed that the empire was in an untenable condition, and that sweeping reforms were needed.
The ministers of foreign affairs and of the interior, Count Buol-Schauenstein and Bach, who were regarded as the chief representatives of the ruling policy, had to resign, but no other changes of importance were made. The financial troubles again made themselves felt, and a new loan of 200,000,000 fl, which was to be raised by a national subscription, proved a complete failure. A first attempt to reorganize the administration of the empire was made by the imperial patent of March 5,1860, which gave to the Reichsrath a limited right of cooperation in the legislation and in the control of the finances. When the Reichsrath, the number of whose members had been increased, met in June, its majority agreed with the new minister of the interior, Count Goluchowski, in advising the abandonment of the centralizing and the adoption of a federalists policy. The emperor fulfilled this wish by the publication of the imperial diploma of Oct. 20, 1860 (the October-Diplom), which conferred upon the diets of the several crown lands the right of legislation on all affairs save those expressly reserved for the Reichsrath. The latter class embraced only the finances of the empire, and the foreign, war, and commercial affairs.
The Reichsrath was in future to consist of 100 members elected by the provincial diets, and of the members appointed by the emperor. The novel constitution which Austria was to receive by this diploma failed to be acceptable to any party. To the Poles of Galicia and the Czechs of Bohemia, who demanded complete autonomy, it did not go far enough in the direction of federalism. Hungary insisted on the unconditional restoration of its constitution. The German liberals demanded, on the one hand, a more popular composition of the Reichsrath, and on the other, a greater centralization, as the ex-cessive rights conferred upon the crown lands must in the natural course of development lead to a dissolution of the empire. Their arguments made an impression upon the court; Count Goluchowski was dismissed in December, 1860, and succeeded by Schmerling, who in 1848, as minister of the German empire during the regency of the archduke John, had acquired the reputation of an able and liberal statesman. The imperial patent of Feb. 26, 1861 (theFebruar-Patent), which soon followed the appointment of Schmerling, resumed the work of welding all the discordant provinces of the polyglot empire into a strongly consolidated, truly constitutional monarchy.
The Reichsrath, which received all the usual rights of parliaments, was to consist of a Herrenham or house of lords, and a house of deputies numbering 343 members. Affairs common to the non-Hungarian provinces were to be acted upon by the non-Hungarian members as "limited Eeichsrath" (Engerer Reichsrath). The first session of the new Reichsrath (May, 1861) was attended by deputies from all the German and most of the Slavic provinces; but Hungary, Croatia, Transylvania, and Venetia were not represented. All the efforts of the government to induce these crown lands to send deputies proved fruitless. In Hungary, in particular, all parties united for a "passive resistance." The Saxons and Roumans of Transylvania were prevailed upon in 1863 to take part in the Reichsrath; but soon the Czechs of Bohemia and Moravia refused a further attendance. The proceedings of the Reichsrath did not make a favorable impression upon the public mind, and the annual deficits continued to swell the public debt to a fearful amount.
Schmer-ling finally saw the impossibility of carrying through his plans, and resigned in June, 1865. The prominent feature of the foreign policy of Austria during the administration of Schmerling was the struggle for her continued ascendancy in the German confederation, which appeared to be threatened by the growing power of Prussia. Schmerling endeavored to secure the admission of all the dominions of Austria into the German confederation and the German Zollverein, but in vain. In order to gain the sympathy of the liberals throughout Germany, who it was thought had been alienated from Prussia by the policy of Bismarck, the Austrian government proposed a liberal reformation of the federal diet. An invitation from the emperor Francis Joseph to the German princes and the burgomasters of the free cities to assemble in Frankfort on Aug. 17, 1863, for the discussion of this question, was accepted by all those invited except the king of Prussia, whose opposition proved sufficient to foil the plan. Notwithstanding these repeated humiliations by Prussian diplomacy, the Austrian minister of foreign affairs, Count Rechberg, soon after accepted a proposition from Prussia that the Schleswig-IIolstein difficulty be regulated by the two great German powers, and not, as the national party in Germany desired, by the federal diet.
Austria accordingly took part in the Schleswig-Holstein war, finally terminated on Oct. 30, 1864, by the peace of Vienna, in which Christian IX. of Denmark ceded the duchies of Schleswig, Hol-stein, and Lauenburg to the emperor of Austria and the king of Prussia. Soon, however, the Austrian court became suspicious of the Prussian alliance, which not only alienated the middle states from Austria, but threatened her with new diplomatic humiliations. A falling out of the two powers, and even the outbreak of hostilities, was seriously feared; but it was for a time averted by the Gastein convention of Aug. 14, 1865, according to which Lauenburg was incorporated with Prussia, Holstein occupied by Austrian and Schleswig by Prussian troops. Meanwhile the liberal Schmerling cabinet had been succeeded by one consisting of a combination of feudal federalists and old conservative Hungarians, with Count Belcredi, a Czech, as president. One of the first acts of the new ministry was the suspension of the constitution of February, 1861, under the pretext that a new attempt was to be made to come to a full understanding with Hungary. When the diets of the German and Slavic provinces were convoked in November, those of Galicia and Bukowina, as well as the Czech majority of the Bohemian diet, voted addresses of thanks to the emperor; while all the German diets, with the single exception of that of Tyrol, which was under the control of the "Catholic" party, demanded the recognition of the continued legal existence of the constitution of February. The Slavs generally rallied for the support of the new ministry, and the contiict between the Slavic and German nationalities assumed dimensions previously unknown.
The negotiations with Hungary did not have the desired effect. Although the emperor on Dec. 14, 1865, opened himself the Hungarian diet, and although the Hungarians received him and the empress, who soon came likewise to Pesth, with unbounded enthusiasm, the majority of the diet insisted on greater demands than the emperor thought it compatible with the interests of the dynasty to concede. Before an understanding had been arrived at, the complications with Prussia reached a crisis. The governments of both Austria and Prussia were fully aware of the grave dangers connected with the solution of the Schleswig-IIolstein question. Prussia meant to take the duchies herself; Austria supported the duke of Au-gustenburg. Early in 1866 both began to arm and to prepare for war. Austria endeavored to recover the sympathy of the middle states of Germany; Prussia, on April 8, concluded a defensive and offensive alliance with Italy. A motion of Austria in the federal diet of Germany (June 1, 1866) to have the claim of the prince of Augustenburg to Schleswig-IIolstein decided by the federal diet, was declared by Prussia to be a violation of the Gastein convention.
Prussian troops were immediately marched into the duchy of Holstein, which the Austrian commander, Gen. von Gablenz, yielding to superior numbers, hastened to evacuate. The majority of the federal diet, regarding these steps as disloyal demonstrations against the authority of the confederation, ordered (June 14), on motion of Austria, the mobilization of the entire army of the confederation with the exception of the Prussian corps. Prussia declared that this decree was a radical subversion of the fundamental principle of the confederation, and that she now considered the original pact as broken. Regarding the resolution as a declaration of war on the part of all the states which had voted for it, Prussia at once began its military operations. Feldzeugmeister Benedek was appointed commander-in-chief of the northern and Archduke Albrecht of the southern armies of Austria. The Prussians advanced with a rapidity for which Austria and her allies were not prepared, and the troops of the smaller states proved as of old entirely inefficient. The Prussian progress through Saxony was undisputed, and the first serious encounter took place on Austrian soil.
The military superiority of the Prussians soon became apparent; one Austrian corps after another was beaten, until on July 3 the bulk of their army suffered a crushing defeat at Sadowa near Ko-niggratz in Bohemia. This victory of Prussia filled the army of Austria, as well as the government and the population, with consternation. No halt was made in the retreat, and all the provinces north of Vienna were abandoned to the enemy. The government relieved Benedek of the chief command, which was transferred to the archduke Albrecht, who in the meanwhile had been entirely successful in the campaign in Venetia, having defeated the Italian army at Custozza (June 24) and driven it back across the Mincio. With him a part of his army was called to the northern seat of war. Hoping to detach Italy from the alliance with Prussia, the Austrian government had, moreover, on the day after the battle of Sadowa, ceded Venetia to Louis Napoleon, and requested his friendly mediation for bringing about peace. Italy declined to follow the advice of Napoleon, and, while the Prussians marched upon Vienna, again invaded Venetia and some districts of Tyrol. A naval victory of the Austrian admiral Tegetthoff at the island of Lissa (July 20) did not change the general prospects of the war, and had no influence upon the progress of the peace negotiations, which through the mediation of France had began at Nikolsburg. A preliminary peace was concluded on July 26, which on Aug. 23 was followed by the definitive peace of Prague. Austria consented to the establishment of the North German confederation under the leadership of Prussia, and to the incorporation of Hanover, Hesse-Cassel, Nassau, Frankfort, and Schleswig-Holstein with the Prussian dominions.
Between Austria and Italy a truce was concluded on Aug. 12, and a definitive peace on Oct. 3 at Vienna. Austria recognized the union of Venetia, which Napoleon had ceded to Victor Emanuel, as well as of Lomhardy with the kingdom of Italy, while the Italian government agreed to assume the debt of Lombardy and Venetia, and 35,000,000 florins of the general Austrian debt, and also promised to restore to the dethroned princes of Tuscany and Modena, who were relatives of Francis Joseph, their private movable and immovable property. - Count Mensdortf, the minister of foreign affairs, and Count Maurice Esterhazy, who was believed to be the chief adviser of the emperor, resigned their places in the ministry on Oct. 30. Mcnsdorff was succeeded by Baron Beust, who, as the representative of Saxony in the federal diet, had gained the reputation of being the ablest opponent of the Prussian policy among the statesmen of the middle states. Beust soon submitted a novel plan for the reconstruction of Austria. He was as much opposed to the centralism of Schmerling as to the feudal federalism of Belcredi, and in the place of both recommended a strictly dualistic basis as the best remedy for the evils which had brought Austria to the brink of an unfathomable abyss.
As the hope of Belcredi and his old conservative Hungarian friends to effect a reconciliation with Hungary was disappointed, Beust found a favorable hearing for his ideas. The main point of his programme was a lasting reconciliation with Hungary, and to that end the adoption of the propositions which Deak, the recognized leader of the majority of the Hungarian diet, had made to Belcredi. Beust advised the emperor to appoint at once a Hungarian ministry, and to obtain through it the consent of the Hungarian diet to the draft of the agreement between Cisleithan and Transleithan Austria, as proposed by Deak; to call then, in accordance with the constitution of February, 1861, a meeting of the "limited Reichsrath " of Cisleithania, lay before it the agreement with Hungary as an accomplished fact, and to propose to it such changes in the constitution of February as the concession made to Hungary would require. The advice was accepted; Belcredi resigned, and on Feb. 7, 1867, Beust was appointed prime minister. Within one month the most important points had been settled.
Hungary abandoned the idea of a purely "personal union," and agreed to have the army and the foreign affairs in common with Cisleithania; it also promised a revision of the laws of 1848. On the other hand, the subordination of Croatia to the Hungarian ministry and the reincorporation of Transylvania with Hungary were readily conceded. The Hungarians were notified of the accomplished agreement and of the appointment of a responsible Hungarian ministry, of which Count Julius Andrassy was the president, by rescripts dated Feb. 17, 1867, and signed by Francis Joseph as "king of Hungary." On the next day, Feb. 18, the provincial diets of all the German and Slavic crown lands were opened. The German diets generally declared themselves satisfied with the settlement of the Hungarian quesflon; most of the Slavic diets showed themselves at least not irreconcilable; but the Czechs of Bohemia so violently opposed the projects of the government that the Bohemian diet had to be dissolved. The Czech leaders were so incensed at the new turn of Austrian politics that they used the so-called ethnographical exhibition at Moscow (May, 1867) as a welcome occasion for an ostentatious display of Panslavistic tendencies.
The Reichsrath of the German and Slavic provinces, which was opened on May 22, 1867, formally approved the agreement concluded with Hungary, but at the same time declared that the Cisleithan provinces would not be fully satisfied until they should receive the same guarantee of their constitutional rights which had been given to the Hungarians. The majority of the Reichs-rath demanded, in particular, a revision of the concordat, which in the opinion of the liberal party gave to the pope and the bishops privileges not compatible with a constitutional monarchy. The numerous manifestations for and against a revision of the concordat produced a profound agitation; but, though Beust unmistakably leaned toward the side of the liberals, he prevented definite action on the subject. On June 8 Francis Joseph was solemnly crowned as constitutional king of Hungary in the ancient capital, Buda. The relations with foreign powers remained peaceful; neither the publication of the secret treaties which Prussia after the peace of Prague had concluded with the south German states, nor the visit of the French emperor (August, 1867) at Salzburg, who desired to bring about an anti-Prussian alliance, could shake Beust's conviction that the preservation of peace was indispensably necessary for completing the work of reorganization at home.
The greatest difficulty in the negotiations between the two delegations which had been appointed by the Reichsrath and by the Hungarian diet for regulating the relations between the two great divisions of the empire, was the proportionate distribution among them of the expenditures for the common affairs of the empire and of the public debt. The agreement finally arrived at, according to which 70 per cent, of the expenditures and debt was to be borne by the Cisleithan provinces, and 30 per cent, by Hungary, met with a strong opposition in the Reichsrath, as it was regarded to be too partial to Hungary; but the conviction that a full understanding with Hungary was necessary for the definite reconstruction of Cisleithan Austria upon a constitutional basis outweighed all other considerations, and in December, 1867, all the propositions of the two delegations were agreed to. Both houses of the Reichsrath in the meanwhile (the lower house on Oct. 17, the upper on Dec. 2) had adopted four fundamental laws of the state (Staatsgrundgesetze), which in many points modified the constitution of February, 1861, and secured to the Cisleithan provinces a truly constitutional form of government.
The laws were sanctioned by the emperor on Dec. 21; and then the reconstitution of the empire on the dualistic basis of a division into Cisleithan and Transleithan provinces was completed. On Dec. 24 the emperor appointed an imperial ministry (Eeichsministerium) for the common affairs of the empire, consisting of Count Beust as minister of foreign affairs, Herr von Becke as minister of finance, and Gen. von John as minister of war. The first ministry of Cisleithania was announced in the official gazette of Vienna on Jan. 1, 1868. Prince Carlos Auersperg was its president, and among its members it counted some of the prominent leaders of the liberal party in the Reichsrath, such as Dr. Giskra, minister of the interior, Dr. Herbst, minister of justice, and Dr. Bres-tel, minister of finance. Beust, upon whom the emperor in recognition of his services had conferred the titles of count and chancellor of the empire, remained for nearly four years (December, 1867, to November, 1871) at the helm of the foreign affairs of the empire.
During all this time the peaceable relations with other powers were not disturbed, and Beust gained at home and abroad the reputation of being one of the ablest statesmen of Europe. In July, 1870, the peaceable policy of Austria was put to a severe test by the outbreak of the war between France and Germany. The ministry of the empire, whose meetings at this time were also attended by the prime ministers of Cisleithania and Hungary, and presided over by the emperor, declared on July 18 in favor of an attentive neutrality, which, as Beust explained, did not exclude the duty of watching for the safety of the monarchy, and of providing against all possible dangers. The continuance of peace enabled the ministers of Cisleithania and of Hungary to devote their whole attention to internal reforms. One of the first acts of the Cisleithan ministers was to demand from all public officers an oath to support the constitution. The gaps which still existed in the constitution were gradually filled up. A law on the responsibility of the ministry was adopted by a large majority of both houses. The military offices which had been directly dependent upon the emperor were abolished.
Thus the archduke Albrecht was relieved from the chief command of the army, and as inspector of the standing army placed under the minister of war. The command of the navy was taken from Archduke Rainer and conferred upon Admiral Tegetthoff. One of the most important reforms was the reorganization of the army on a basis substantially identical with that of the military organization of Prussia. The law, which passed the house of deputies by the large majority of 118 votes against 20 (Nov. 18,1868), provided in particular for a general liability of all classes of the people to military service, and regulated the appointment to military offices. The financial condition of the empire steadily improved, and although the annual budgets were not yet free from deficits, the productivity and taxability of the country so rapidly advanced as to diffuse everywhere new confidence in the financial future of the empire. - But in spite of so much that looked encouraging, two great conflicts never ceased to darken the horizon of Cisleithan Austria. One of these concerned the regulation of the religious and school affairs.
On May 25, 1868, the government sanctioned three laws adopted by both houses of the Reichsrath. which, in accordance with the views of the liberal party, abolished the jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical courts over the marriage relations of Catholics, transferred the supreme direction and superintendence of the entire department of instruction and education to the state, and regulated the relations of the churches recognized by the state on the basis of equal rights. The papal nuncio in Vienna protested against these laws as a violation of the concordat, and the pope declared them to be null and void; but the government, while endeavoring to conciliate the bishops as much as possible, carried them through. Another important victory was gained by the liberal party in 1870, when the government declared the concordat of 1855 to be no longer valid. Still more important than this religious conflict was that between the different nationalities represented in the Reichsrath. The Czechs of Bohemia and Moravia demanded for the lands of "the crown of St. Wenceslas," by which they understood the provinces of Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia, an autonomy equal or at least similar to that of Hungary, and including in particular a Czech parliament in the place of Czech deputies to the Vienna Reichsrath. The Silesian diet almost unanimously protested against these schemes; but in Bohemia and Moravia the Czech population gave them an enthusiastic support.
As the Germans in 1808 controlled the diets of both Bohemia and Moravia, the Czech members in August resigned their seats, and presented to the presidents of the diets a declaration fully setting forth their views and plans. At the new election for the Bohemian diet all the 81 signers of the declaration, with but one exception, were reelected. They again refused to attend the diet convoked in September, 1869, as the German members were again in the majority. The Vienna government was willing to enter into negotiations with the Czechs; but the leaders of the latter, Rieger and Sladkowsky, declined to attend the conference which had been proposed by Giskra, and the representatives of the Czech nationality whom Count Potocki in April, 1870, called to Vienna, were equally unwilling to make any concessions. The success of Hungary and the Czech agitation strengthened the hope of the Poles of Galicia that they also might be able to obtain for the Polish parts of the empire an autonomy like that of Hungary, and that thus Galicia might become the nucleus of a restored Polish realm.
Accordingly the diet, on Sept. 10, 1868, resolved to petition the emperor to give to the former kingdoms of Galicia and Lodomeria and to the grand duchy of Cracow a separate government, under the direction of a chancellor or special minister, who should be responsible to the diet. When the committee of the Vienna Reichstag declared the Polish demands to be inadmissible, the Polish members of the Reichsrath resigned, and their example was soon followed by the majority of all the Slavic deputies. An insurrection which in October, 1869, broke out in the Slavic province of Dalmatia, in the district of Cattaro, had no connection with the nationality movements. "The people of this district, which is separated from the remainder of Dalmatia by a high mountain ridge, and who number only 30,000 souls, had formerly been exempt from military service, and therefore made a forcible resistance to an attempt to enroll them, in accordance with the new military law, in the landwehr. After several bloody encounters, in which the imperial troops suffered severe losses, the insurgents submitted in January, 1870, when several concessions were made to them.
In view of the alarming dimensions which the nationalitv conflicts assumed, the members of the Cisleithan ministry were themselves divided in their opinion as to the best policy to be pursued. The majority, to which the ministers Plener, Giskra, Herbst, Hasner, and Brestel belonged, were unwilling to make further concessions to the Czechs, Poles, and other non-German nationalities, and desired to strengthen the authority of the central Reichsrath by a reform of the electoral law. The three other ministers, Taafe, Berger, and Potocki, favored concessions to the nationalities and to federalism. As the majority of both houses of the Reichsrath, which was opened on Dec. 13, 1869, sympathized with the majority of the ministry, the emperor in January, 1870, accepted the resignation of the minority. Soon, however, when the emperor refused to sanction several measures proposed by the new ministry which had been formed by Plener, a new ministerial crisis occurred, and Count Potocki was on April 4 commissioned to form another ministry.
The overtures made by Count Potocki to the leaders of the Czechs and Poles, and the dissolution of the Reichsrath (May 23) 'and all the diets, produced an immense agitation, but the further development of the conflict was adjourned by the outbreak of the Franco-German war. The German centralists were not only dissatisfied with the cabinet of Potocki, but also with the chancellor, Count Beust, whom they likewise charged with making undue concessions to the nationalities. After the outbreak of the Franco-German Avar, the Austrian government gave new offence to the German Austrians by checking their enthusiastic demonstrations of sympathy with the cause of Germany. The Czechs and the Poles, on the other hand, made demonstrations in favor of France; and the leader of the Czechs, Dr. Rieger, even went so far as to make Napoleon a direct offer of an alliance between France and the Czechs, on condition that Napoleon should aid the Czechs in restoring the independent kingdom of Bohemia. The new kingdom was at once to embrace the Austrian provinces of Bohemia, Moravia, and Austrian Silesia, to which subsequently Prussian Silesia, Lusatia, and the Slovak districts of northern Hungary were to be added.
In the new Reichsrath, which was opened on Sept. 5, the German liberals again controlled a majority of both houses. The provincial diet of Bohemia, however, in which the united Czechs and federalists had a majority, declined to elect delegates to the Reichsrath. Although an imperial rescript of Sept. 29 made, in reply to an address from a Czech deputation of the Bohemian diet, promises of large concessions, such as the coronation of the Austrian emperors with the Bohemian crown and the indivisibility of the country, the Czechs persisted in their refusal. The government then ordered direct elections, by which 24 Germans and liberals and 36 adherents of the "declaration" were deputed to Vienna. The latter at once resigned their seats; but as both houses of the Reichsrath had a quorum, they soon passed a resolution declaring want of confidence in the ministry, which consequently tendered its resignation on* Nov. 23. The emperor accepted the resignation, but the formation of a new cabinet was not accomplished until the beginning of the year 1871. The Czech leaders on Dec. 8 addressed, in the name of the "political nation of the Bohemians," a memoir to the Austrian chancellor, in which they explained their views on the foreign policy of Austria, and in particular declared their sympathy with Rus--sia in the eastern question.
On Dec. 14 the chancellor returned the memoir, informing the Czechs that the expression of such views exceeded their rights. On the other hand, a diplomatic correspondence of the most friendly character was begun in December with the government of Prussia, Austria waiving all opposition to the reconstruction of the German empire under the leadership of Prussia. The expected reorganization of the ministry took place on Feb. 7, 1871, under the presidency of Count Hohenwart. The new ministry leaned on the support of the" Slavs and the feudal and Catholic parties. The Reichsrath declared itself dissatisfied with the policy of making concessions to the nationalities, but the emperor in stern words declared his approval. The majority of the Reichsrath, being divided in their opinions as to the best policy now to be pursued, granted the appropriations demanded by the ministry, and found some consolation in the fact that Chancellor Beust in the German as well as the Roman questions appeared to sympathize with the liberals. On the adjournment of the Reichsrath, on July 11, Count Hohenwart made some important concessions to the Czechs and the Poles. The latter appeared to be contented; but the Czechs insisted on the adoption of the whole of their demands.
In August the ministry dissolved all the provincial diets in which the German centralists had a majority, and ordered new elections for the Reichsrath. The result gave to Count Hohenwart the assurance that now all the demands of the Czechs would be substantially granted, and the constitution as far as necessary be altered by the new Reichsrath. An imperial rescript to the Bohemian diet, which acknowledged "the rights of the Bohemian kingdom," caused unbounded enthusiasm among the Czechs. A deputation from the Bohemian diet officially presented in Vienna the fundamental laws on which they desired the Ausgleich (agreement) to be based. This presentation brought on a new crisis. A crown council, composed of the Cisleithan ministers, the ministers common to the whole empire, and Count Andrassy, was called to advise the emperor. Both Count Beust and Count Andrassy so energetically opposed the policy of Ilohenwart that the emperor took sides with them. As the Czech leaders refused to consent to any modification of their programme, Hohenwart resigned on Oct. 25. A month later a new Cisleithan cabinet favorable to the German centralists was appointed, under the presidency of Prince Adolph Auersperg. Again the diets opposed to the new ministry were dissolved and new elections for the Reichsrath ordered; and again the ministry succeeded in securing a ministerial majority in the new Reichsrath. The speech with which the emperor on Dec. 27 opened the Reichsrath announced that the government would accede to the wishes of Ga-liciain so far as they were compatible with the interests of the empire, and that measures would be taken to make the Reichsrath a completely representative body.
On Feb. 20, 1872, the ministry and constitutional party ( Verfas-sungspartei) gained a great triumph, as the Reichsrath by 104 against 49 votes adopted an additional clause to the electoral law which authorized the government to order direct elections if delegates elected by provincial diets should resign their seats or be prevented from entering the Reichsrath. Another great triumph was obtained by the ministry in Bohemia, where it controlled a considerable majority in the new provincial diet. Of the 54 delegates whom the new diet sent to the Reichsrath, 40 were supporters of the ministry, which could now rely on a two-thirds majority in the Reichsrath even if the Poles should not vote for it. The session of the diet was closed on June 23. The two great reforms, the introduction of which had been regarded as the chief task of the ministry, the substitution of direct elec-tion to the Reichsrath for the indirect election of the delegates by the provincial diets, and the Ausgleich (agreement) with the Poles, were not yet carried through. The ministry offered to the Poles far-reaching concessions, but at the same time declared that nothing would be conceded incompatible with the dualistic basis of the entire empire.
The Poles in turn promised that in their struggle for an autonomy like that of Hungary they would keep within the bounds of the present constitution of the empire. (See Galicia, and Hungary.) - Among the best historical works on Austria are Mai-lath, Geschichte des osterreichischen Kaiser-staats (5 vols., Hamburg, 1834-'50); Lichnow-sky, Geschichte des Hauses Habshurg (8 vols., Vienna, 1836-'44); Springer, Geschichte Oes-terreichs seit dem Wiener Frieden (2 vols., Leipsic, 1864-'5); Bidermann, Geschichte der ostreichischen Gesammtstaatsidee (vol. i., Inn-spruck, 1867); Rogge, Von Vilagos bis zur Gegenwart (vol. i., Leipsic, 1872); Archiv fur Kunde der osterreichischen Geschichtsquellen (published by the Vienna academy of science, vols. i. to xliv., Vienna, 1848-71).
Austria, an archduchy in the western half of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, bounded N. by Bohemia and Moravia, E. by Hungary, 8. by Styria and Salzburg, and W. by Salzburg and Bavaria; area, 15,056 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 2,888,420. It is divided into two provinces or crown lands - Upper Austria (Oestreich ob der Enns) in the west, and Lower Austria (Oestreich unter der Enns) in the east, the river Enns forming part of the boundary between them. - Upper Austria has an area of 4,633 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 735,622. The principal rivers are the Danube, which divides the province into two portions, the Enns, the Traun, and the Inn, tributaries of the Danube, and the Salz-ach, which flows into the Inn. In the S. W. are numerous Alpine lakes, some of them of considerable size. Mineral springs are found in various parts of the province, but few of them are of great value. The surface is mountainous. S. of the Danube the Noric Alps overspread the country, rising, in the group near Hallstadt, to the height of more than 9,500 ft. N. of the Danube the mountain system of Bohemia extends into the province, but attains no considerable altitude. The soil is exceedingly fertile in the valleys of the Danube and its tributaries, but elsewhere stony and dry.
Even on the mountain slopes, however, the inhabitants have made it productive. The climate is bracing and cool, from the mountainous nature of the country. Agriculture and cattle-breeding arc the principal occupations of the people. The salt works at Ischl and Ilallstadt furnish an important industry, but the manufactures are not "extensive, and consist chiefly of iron articles and cotton goods. Capital, Linz. - Lower Austria has an area of 7,656 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 2,000,602. The principal rivers are the Danube, Enns, Leitha, Krems, March, and Thaya. The S. portion is occupied by a part of the Noric Alps, with their branches; the chief of these are the groups of the Wienerwald or Kahlengebirg, a spur of which, the Schneeberg, is 6,760 ft. above the sea. N. of the Danube chains of hills extend into the country from Bohemia, but there are no considerable peaks. The valley of the Danube is hero broad and fertile, and the smaller valleys of its tributaries, especially in the northern part of the province, also furnish large tracts of arable land. The climate is somewhat warmer than that of Upper Austria. Agriculture is not carried to the perfection attained in that province; but the manufactures are much more numerous and flourishing.
Most of these are carried on in the neighborhood of Vienna. The province is intersected by several lines of railway, and there is a brisk trade with the neighboring states. Capital, Vienna. - The archduchy of Austria was the nucleus around which the empire of Austria (now the Austro-Hungarian monarchy) grew up. Lower Austria was founded as a margraviate in the time of Charlemagne; in 1156, joined with Upper Austria, it became a duchy, and in 1453 an archduchy. From this time the Hapsburgs steadily added to its territory, and it was soon merged in their increasing possessions.