Azerbijan, Or Azerbaijan, a N. W. province of Persia, bounded N. and N. E. by the Russian dominions, E. by the Persian province of Ghilan", S. by Irak-Ajemi and Persian Kurdistan, and W. by Turkish Kurdistan and Armenia; area, about 30,000 sq. m.; pop. estimated at 2,000,000. It nearly corresponds to the ancient Median province of Atropatene, from which its modern name is derived. The country is mountainous, with fertile valleys and small plains. Mt. Savalan, apparently once a volcano, is upward of 12,000 feet high. The chief rivers are the Aras (the ancient Araxes), which flows along the N. border, and its affluent, the Karasu. The salt lake of Urumiah is in this province. The climate is generally healthy; the summers are very hot and the winters very cold. In the plains the pomegranate and olive thrive in the open air. The mineral resources of the province are. not developed; but there are mines of iron, lead, and copper. The inhabitants are chiefly Mohammedans, but there are some settlements of Nestorian Christians. Capital, Tabriz.