Balliol, or Baliol. I. John, king of Scotland, born about 1259, died in Normandy in 1814 He was a descendant of the eldest daughter of the earl of Huntingdon, brother of King William the Lion, and, after the death of the princess Margaret of Norway, granddaughter and heiress of Alexander III., the nearest heir to the throne. He was opposed by Robert Bruce and John Hastings, descendants of younger daughters of the earl of Huntingdon, and by several others. (See Bruce.) The claims of the rivals being submitted by agreement to Edward I. of England, he decided in favor of Balliol, but on condition that he should do homage to him for the crown of Scotland. He was accordingly crowned at Scone in November, 1292, and in December, with the principal nobles of his party, swore allegiance to Edward at Newcastle-on-Tyne. Shortly afterward, being called upon to aid Edward against France, he renounced his allegiance, made an alliance with France, and declared war. Utterly defeated after a short and violent struggle, he was obliged to cede the crown of Scotland to the English king in 1296, who held him and his son prisoners in London till 1299. On his release, finding himself ostracized by public opinion in Scotland, he retired to his chateau of Bailleul in Normandy. His father and mother were the founders of Balliol college, Oxford. II. Edward, king of Scotland, son of the preceding, died at Doncaster in 1363. The king of England invited him over from Normandy in 1324 and 1327, merely to threaten Robert Bruce. In 1332 he was called upon by the dispossessed Anglo-Norman barons to lead them into Scotland to recover their estates there.
He entered the frith of Forth, landed at Kinghorn, defeated the earl of Fife, and with 3,000 men marched across the country to meet the earl of Mar encamped on the opposite side of the river Earn with a force of 30,000. A second Scottish army lay within a few miles of Balliol's flank. During the night the invading force crossed the Earn, and with slight loss achieved an astonishing victory at Dupplin Moor, above 12,000 Scots, including the earls of Mar and Moray, and hundreds of knights and barons, falling in the battle. At Perth Balliol defeated the second array, commanded by the earl of March. The disaffected flocked to Balliol's standard, and he was crowned king of Scotland at Scone, Sept. 24, only seven weeks after his landing at Kinghorn. Balliol, having privately rendered homage to Edward III., lay carelessly at Annan, where he was in turn surprised by the earl of Moray, brother of the one slain at Dupplin, and barely escaped to England, after a reign of three months. Edward III. now took up the cause of Balliol, whom the battle of Halidon Hill, July 19,1333, again placed on the Scottish throne. The Scots were so weakened by this defeat, that he might have retained his power had he not been too obsequious to the English monarch.
By a treaty he gave up Berwick-upon-Tweed, and surrendered Berwickshire, Roxburghshire, Peeblesshire, Dumfriesshire, and the Lothians. The Scottish nation now became disgusted, and turned to the young king David Bruce; | and after 1338 Balliol maintained only a nominal footing in Scotland, being most of the time a refugee in England. In 1355 Edward III. purchased his claims on the Scottish throne for 5,000 marks, and an annuity of £2,000, and Balliol retired to Yorkshire. He left no issue.